Write a research paper that explains the key points of biological psychology.It is important to send an outline of the idea that you have put together for the term paper – an outline is necessary for me to submit this paper. this will also help me ensure its on the right track. I will attach the instructions to both the outline requirements and the official paper. Do not worry about waiting for an approval to start on the actual paper. Thank you kindly!
Length: 1–2 pages
Choosing a Topic
For your term paper, you are encouraged to select any topic in the field of biological psychology that is of special interest to you and that is approved by your tutor.
Here are some examples of topics to consider:
Sleep and Dreams. Great strides have been made in recent years in identifying the neural mechanisms that account for brain wave patterns that characterize the various stages and qualities of sleep and dreams. Scientists have identified the brain circuits that initiate sleep and that account for the transition from one stage of sleep to the next. This topic should construct an account of the neural mechanisms involved in sleep and identify the basic phenomena associated with sleep.
Stress and Its Effect on the Brain and Body. Excessive human stress is widely regarded as a contributing factor to, or a cause of, numerous physical and mental diseases. This topic requires you to address the neurobiological mechanisms associated with the stress response and the way the brain responds to stress. In particular, you must identify how stress hormones can impede the well-being and normal functioning of the brain. Further, this topic should include an examination of the effects of stress on the functioning of such specific brain structures as the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and/or amygdala.
The Biological Basis of Schizophrenia. In addition to being one of the most perplexing disorders we know about, schizophrenia is a devastating affliction that disrupts our highest cognitive abilities. A variety of research supports the conclusion that schizophrenia is a developmental disorder that disrupts brain development. The brain condition it produces has been compared to a switchboard with faulty connections. This topic requires you to cover the various theories concerning the biological basis of schizophrenia. For each theory addressed, provide evidence for the claims made and describe how the research was conducted.
How the Brain Mediates and Controls the Sensation of Pain. Few topics are so directly relevant to our everyday experience as pain. One of the fascinating aspects of pain research is that it deals with a topic that is as subjective as it is objective. Everyone experiences pain, but to different degrees and for different reasons. Nevertheless, ample evidence indicates that the brain systems that mediate pain are remarkably similar across species. This topic requires you to identify the various mechanisms in the sensory pathway for pain, and then show how central mechanisms mediate the pain gate that controls activity in the pathway. You will also need to address the question of how cognitive centres in the brain can influence the intensity of pain.
The Biological Basis of Memory. How the human brain stores our experiences is an attractive research topic in the neurosciences today. Solid support exists for the claim that memories we are aware of (i.e., conscious about) are mediated by a brain system that involves the temporal lobe and the prefrontal cortex. In contrast, memories we remain unconscious of are probably mediated by the cerebellum and basal ganglia. For this topic, you might choose to examine the neural basis of a single type of memory, or you might prefer to survey the overall memory systems in the brain. Alternatively, you could focus on long-term potentiation, a prime candidate for the mechanism by which memories are stored in the brain in the first place.
The Biological Basis of Addiction. Drug addiction is a serious and enduring problem that has economic, social, medical, and psychological consequences. Addictive drugs seem to bypass motivational states and directly stimulate the extensive pleasure systems in the brain, primarily through activation of the nucleus accumbens and the extended amygdala. For this topic, you might present a broad overview of addiction mechanisms in the brain, including an examination of how drugs act at synapses. Alternatively, you could examine a single addictive drug (e.g., alcohol, cocaine, amphetamine, heroin) and describe how the addictive process emerges.
The Biological Basis of Affective Disorders. Known as the “common cold of psychiatric disorders,” depression, and the less common condition of mania, are major challenges for neuroscientists today. The problem is compounded by the multiple etiologies involved in depression and the fact that many cases of depression may involve little or no underlying brain disorder. Nevertheless, biologically based types of depression are prominent, and current research is beginning to unravel the nature of the brain and the chemistry dysfunctions associated with it. For this topic, you could present an overview of the many hypotheses identifying biological factors as the cause of affective disorders. Alternatively, you might choose to examine a single factor in greater depth.
Biological Characteristics of Drug Use. Write a paper on any biological aspect of drug use that interests you. For example, you might want to take a detailed look at the action of a single drug, or class of drugs, on neurotransmitter systems in the nervous system. Or, you might prefer to review the effects and mechanisms of one of the mood-altering or hallucinogenic drugs on humans.
Biopsychological Disease or Disorder. Identify a biopsychological disease or disorder (e.g., obsessive–compulsive disorder, amnesia, panic disorder) that interests you, and write an in-depth report on its biological basis. You may include a case study in your report, but be sure that the case study is integrated into the overall paper and that it illustrates the points made in the rest of the paper.
Term Paper Thesis Statement and Outline
Before you begin to write your term paper, you must submit an outline of your paper, including a thesis statement, for approval.
There are two reasons for doing this. First, writing a working thesis statement and preparing an outline will help you to identify your objectives and organize them in a cohesive and thematic fashion. A good thesis statement acts as a solid basis with which to maintain focus. Second, the proposal allows your tutor to consider your management of the topic and make suggestions before you begin to write.
While you may not have acquired all of your sources at this stage, it is recommended that you include the ones that you have or intend to obtain.
If necessary, your tutor can help you to expand some of your points, add additional references, reorganize the outline, or develop it further. If major changes are required, or if your outline has major omissions, your tutor may ask you to submit a new outline. Your outline may be written in point form.
Your term paper will not be accepted for grading unless your outline has been approved by your tutor, or the plans for the paper have been adequately discussed with and subsequently approved by the tutor.
Length: 3,000–5,000 words (12–20 double-spaced pages, in 12-point font, not including title page, references, figures, and appendices)
Weight: 35% of your final course grade
Write a term paper on the topic that you chose for your term paper thesis statement and outline.
Please read the pages on the characteristics of a quality paper, citation style, and the term ;aper grading criteria in the term paper outline and term paper section of the Course Information.
Your paper should be written in APA style. Consult these resources:
APA’s Style and Grammar Guidelines (7th ed.)
Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)’s information on APA Style (7th ed.)
Submit your paper in Microsoft Word format (.doc or .docx) or rich text format (.rtf).
Characteristics of a Quality Paper
A well-organized paper consists of an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. It must include a title page and a reference list, and it may include figures and appendices.
The introduction must provide relevant background information and should present the rationale and scope of the paper. It should be concise and contain a clear thesis statement.
The body of the paper is based on the review of the literature and should support the thesis proposed.
The conclusion should summarize and integrate the main points presented in the paper, reinforce the thesis statement, and provide recommendations for further study.
Your paper must cite authorities (that is, authors of peer-reviewed research articles or books) to back up your statements. Unfounded conjecture (that is, statements by you or an author that are not based on research or logical extrapolation from empirical or experimental research) has no place in scholarly writing. Avoid citing exhortative literature and non-scientific authors or sources. Your supporting citations should be dominated by current (from the last five years) journal articles—that is, primary sources. While textbooks, other books, and internet documents can be used as references, these should be minimized and are considered secondary sources. In particular, minimal reference to the course textbook is expected and acceptable, but a significant reliance on it is unacceptable. The Resources: General, Research, and Writing link on our main course page might be a good starting point for finding appropriate references for your paper. Note, also, the references lists at the end of each chapter in our textbook. As well, the AU Library has a great many available resources. As a guideline, a reasonable number of sources to include in a paper of this nature is ten to fifteen.
Your paper should have a structural theme. You may order it chronologically, logically, or in accordance with some paradigm, such as the thesis you have proposed. The structure should give unity and coherence to your paper. An overall system permitting infinite variation would include the following general structure:
Review of the Literature
Conclusions (or Discussion and Implications)
Given that the largest portion of your paper will be the literature review (that is, the body of the paper), it should be organized into appropriate subheadings relevant to the specific material.
Your term paper should demonstrate your ability to integrate a specific body of research and not just provide a synopsis of the subject matter. This assignment is intended to develop your skill in analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating research, and to further develop your skill in writing a scholarly paper.
You are expected to adhere rigorously to principles of academic integrity. Please refer to the Academic Integrity section of this Course Information for further information on this important issue.
The citation system outlined in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., 2020) is the most easily used and economical system currently in use in psychological circles. This APA Manual may be borrowed from the Athabasca University Library or from another library at which you have borrowing privileges. Another excellent resource is the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)’s information on APA Style .
The APA system includes the names of authors of supportive research as parenthetical citations in the text. A reader who wishes to locate a source turns to the reference list where the complete reference can be found, listing the author, year, article title, journal, volume, and so on. A reference list contains all of the sources referred to in your paper and is arranged in alphabetical order. Every source mentioned in your paper should appear in the reference list, and every item in the list should have a corresponding reference in the text of your paper. A list containing articles and/or books that you read but did not actually cite in the text of your paper is called a bibliography, but typically a bibliography is not included in a paper of this nature.
Note that it is quite uncommon to use quotations in scholarly writing. When citing research, use your own words to describe the particular study. Quotations should be used only when you wish to point out some specific aspect of the actual writing of the authors. Do not use quotations to introduce general information from the source that you are using.xxx
This table provides grading criteria and corresponding grades. Contact your tutor for further information.
85–100% Clear, concise introduction and rationale. Thorough coverage of material. Essay extensively and appropriately referenced with primary scientific sources. Well-organized and planned material. Demonstrated knowledge, comprehension, evaluation, and integration of material. Conclusions clear and logical with well-founded recommendations for further research. Excellent writing style, presentation, and formatting.
70–84% Relatively clear, concise introduction and rationale. Thorough coverage of material. Good use of primary scientific resources. Attempt at overall theme and integration of material. Some confusion in thinking that affects logic of conclusions. Good writing style, presentation, and formatting.
60–69% Unclear introduction and rationale. Adequate coverage of material. Alternative references used, but reliance mainly on one, or on secondary sources. Attempt at overall theme and integration of material, but some faulty logic. Adequate writing style and presentation.
55–59% Sketchy coverage of material. Information derived mainly from textbook with few alternative sources. Poor organization, writing style, and presentation.
40–54% Incomplete coverage of material. Information derived mainly from textbook, and few alternative sources, if any. Unorganized material and poor writing style.
0–39% Unreferenced, inadequate, or inappropriate material. Total lack of organization and writing style.