1. Name the type of joint, and list the movements permitted at the shoulder joint. Under each movements name, list the names of the muscles responsible for each of these movements along with descriptions of their bone insertion.
2. What are EPSPs and IPSPs, and how are they produced? Explain how these electrical currents are used in spatial and temporal summation to initiate or inhibit the generation of an action potential.
3. Describe how the central nervous system is protected from injury. List the components of a spinal reflex arc. Describe the function of each component.
4. Outline the differences between a special sensory, motor and mixed cranial nerve, and briefly describe the functions of the sensory components (if any) of each cranial nerve.
5. Define and describe the relationship between sensation and perception. Explain the relationship between smell and taste, and describe how they are sensed and perceived.
6. Describe the major events involved in image formation on the retina, and list in the correct order the components of the eye that light passes through on its way to the retina. Describe the specific consequences of any abnormality or malfunctioning of each of these components.
7. List the names of the hypothalamic hormones that regulate the secretion of pituitary hormones. Describe how these hypothalamic hormones are delivered to the pituitary gland and describe the effects of these hypothalamic hormones. In addition, describe how the activities of the posterior pituitary gland are regulated by the hypothalamus.
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