How does it benefit that country or culture? Why would the adoption of the thing be good?

Assignment Question

Global Inspiration Presentations

No unread replies.No replies. Be sure you’ve read all the assignments for this video and watched the overview video. In a PowerPoint or video, explore the thing you wish to bring to the USA.

Be sure to include: Context. What country has the thing? What is it?

Analysis. How does it benefit that country or culture?

Application. How could the USA adopt it?

Reflection. Why would the adoption of the thing be good?

In what way do the majority of the characters in Convenience Store Woman support or promote gender norms?

Write a paper that grapples with the theme of gender roles. Be sure to include the answers to the following questions in your analysis. What are gender roles and how do they play a role in the novel? In what way do the majority of the characters in Convenience Store Woman support or promote gender norms? And in Japanese culture at large? In what ways to gender roles inform Keiko and Shiraha and contribute to their personalities? Do they ascribe to (or conform to) gender roles? Or do they resist them? Or something in between? Explain your analysis. In what ways does Keiko respond to the expectations of her as a woman when it comes to (1) work (2) relationships/marriage (3) the concept of motherhood? You must include at least 6 quotes from the novel as well as one quote from the outside source provided

Write a research topic that explores the age-old debate of retrofitting existing buildings versus constructing new ones, with a specific focus on Egypt’s architecture.

Write a research topic that explores the age-old debate of retrofitting existing buildings versus constructing new ones, with a specific focus on Egypt’s architecture.  This question of preservation versus innovation has a significant impact on our daily lives, even if we don’t always notice it. My inspiration for this topic comes from my experiences in Egypt, particularly in Cairo, where the government is carrying out urban development projects that are transforming the city. I’m interested in understanding the balance between preserving historical sites and embracing modernity in architectural decisions. The choice between retrofitting and building from scratch is a central theme of my research, with implications for urban planning, sustainability, and culture. Urban planning is a key part of this discussion, as it addresses the challenge of expanding and modernizing while maintaining livable and sustainable cities. The choices made in Cairo today will have a significant impact on the quality of life for those living in the city. Additionally, these architectural decisions also affect social and economic factors. New construction projects can stimulate economic growth and create jobs, while preserving historical structures can support cultural identity and attract tourism, contributing to economic development. My research will take a multidisciplinary approach, using historical records, urban planning documents, and interviews to better understand the real-world implications of architectural choices. In summary, my research aims to provide insights into the debate between retrofitting and new construction in Egypt’s architectural context, especially in cities like Cairo. It’s not just about buildings; it’s about the impact on our society and the legacy we leave for future generations. Method Study: Topic: Retrofit Vs. New Build My argument: I will still need to decide if retrofit or new build is more beneficial for society by researching more in-depth and taking notes for each. Introduction: In the introduction, I will first state my thesis/ argument and explain the difference between retrofit and new build- the significance of both innovation and renovation as a broad concept of architecture in general throughout our environment. I will conduct this through online research. These are sources I have been looking at that relate to this point:,the%20old%20and%20the%20new. Chapters: Chapter 1- Will be about the situation in my country (Egypt) towards innovation vs. renovation. This is a huge topic of discussion in my country since there are many architectural projects that have been going on suddenly by the government. All details about different projects will be discussed in this chapter. Chapter 2- Retrofit and its effects both positive and negative on culture, society, economics, and urban planning. Chapter 3- New build and its effects both positive and negative on culture, society, economics, and urban planning. Chapter 4- Interviews with 2 interior designers/architects from back home who will give me their insight about this topic. Their insight will be useful since my topic is focusing on Retrofit vs new build in Egypt and they are both Egyptian. I have worked with one of them this summer during an internship, therefore It would be easy to get in contact. Chapter 5- Self-reflection on how my research supports my argument. – Does my argument/thesis need to be about which one of them is more beneficial within Egypt or should be as a concept as a whole worldwide?

What is the role of culture in shaping human behavior?

What is culture? What is the role of culture in shaping human behavior? Conceptualize “culture” and “crime” (in a society) by summarizing the two chapters of Saney. The former chapter gives you an idea about how culture shapes human behavior (including criminal ones) and the latter is the application (illustration) of the conceptual relationship (relation between the concepts culture & crime). Basically, the expectation is to see a well organized summary with appropriate examples and the above mentioned conceptualization. I am particularly expecting to see Saney’s view of American Society’s crime problem in your papers: A-Deviance inducing values 1)High expectations a) political, b) material, c) judicial 2)Individual need for achievement B)Crisis of Legitimacy

Navigating Ethical Challenges in Policing: Lessons from the Breonna Taylor Case Essay

Assignment Question

Assess cross-cultural communication as an essential element of professionalism in criminal justice fields. Choose one scenario or case study demonstrating the effect ethnicity, gender, culture, and sexual orientation have on interactions with police officers. You can find scenarios in your readings or online. Examples include Sandra Bland, Rodney King, Brandon Teena, Breonna Taylor, Michael Brown, and Carlos Ingram-Lopez. Once you have identified your case, you will summarize it and identify themes from the course material (i.e., gender discrimination, stereotyping, communication styles, hate crimes, community-based policing, etc.). After identifying themes from the course material, think about the way the conduct of others impacted the individuals within your case study. What ethical issues can you place within your case study? How can those challenges within the criminal justice system be overcome? This presentation aims to demonstrate your understanding of how a person’s race, culture, gender, and sexual orientation can play a role in a situation. If you are studying a discipline other than criminal justice and wish to tailor your assignment to that discipline, you can contact your instructor for permission.



The relationship between law enforcement agencies and individuals from diverse backgrounds has long been a subject of scrutiny and concern. The dynamics of police interactions are shaped by various factors, including ethnicity, gender, culture, and sexual orientation. This essay aims to shed light on these factors by analyzing the case of Breonna Taylor, whose tragic death serves as a poignant example of how these dimensions can profoundly impact encounters with the police.

Breonna Taylor Case Summary

Breonna Taylor, a 26-year-old African-American woman, was fatally shot by police officers during a botched drug raid on her apartment in Louisville, Kentucky, on March 13, 2020. The officers executed a no-knock search warrant, entering Taylor’s home in the middle of the night. In the ensuing chaos, Taylor was shot multiple times and succumbed to her injuries. The case gained national attention, sparking protests and calls for justice.

Themes from Course Material

The Breonna Taylor case encapsulates several themes explored in the course material related to policing and interactions with law enforcement. These themes include:

Racial Discrimination

The racial aspect of the case is evident in the no-knock warrant execution and the disproportionate use of force against a Black individual. Racial profiling and discrimination have been persistent issues in policing, leading to a lack of trust between minority communities and law enforcement (Smith et al., 2020).

Gender Bias

Gender bias is also a salient aspect of this case. Breonna Taylor’s gender may have influenced the officers’ perceptions and responses during the raid. Research indicates that women, especially Black women, may face unique challenges and biases in police encounters (Crenshaw, 2018).

Communication Challenges

Poor communication during the raid and the lack of clear information contributed to the tragic outcome. Effective communication is essential for de-escalating situations and ensuring the safety of all parties involved (Piquero et al., 2019).

Ethical Dilemmas

The use of no-knock warrants and the level of force employed raise ethical questions about police tactics and accountability. Ethical issues such as excessive force, transparency, and accountability are central to discussions about policing reform (Delattre, 2018).

Impact of Conduct on Individuals

The conduct of the police officers in the Breonna Taylor case had a profound impact on the individuals involved. Breonna Taylor lost her life, resulting in immeasurable grief for her family and community. The officers involved faced scrutiny, public backlash, and legal consequences, which had a lasting effect on their lives and careers. Additionally, the incident further eroded trust between law enforcement and the African-American community in Louisville, exacerbating existing tensions.

Ethical Issues in the Case

The Breonna Taylor case raises critical ethical issues within the criminal justice system. Chief among them is the use of lethal force by law enforcement officers. Taylor, an unarmed civilian, was fatally shot during a police raid, prompting questions about the necessity and proportionality of the force employed (MacNamara, 2019). Additionally, the case highlighted concerns about transparency and accountability within the system, as initial investigations faced skepticism regarding impartiality (Klapheke et al., 2020). Lastly, the ethicality of no-knock warrants came into question, with critics arguing that such warrants can lead to unnecessary violence and should be reevaluated (Alexander, 2020). These ethical dilemmas underscore the urgent need for reform in policing practices and procedures. Some of the prominent ethical issues include:

Use of Force: The use of lethal force in this case, particularly in a situation where Taylor was not the target of the investigation and was unarmed, raises ethical questions about the necessity and proportionality of force (MacNamara, 2019).

Transparency and Accountability: The lack of transparency in the investigation and initial handling of the case raised concerns about accountability within the criminal justice system. Questions were raised about the impartiality of investigations involving law enforcement officers (Klapheke et al., 2020).

No-Knock Warrants: The ethicality of no-knock warrants, which allow law enforcement to enter a residence without prior warning, has been widely debated. Critics argue that such warrants can lead to unnecessary violence and must be reconsidered (Alexander, 2020).

Overcoming Challenges in the Criminal Justice System

The case of Breonna Taylor, marked by racial discrimination, gender bias, communication challenges, and ethical dilemmas, illuminates the pressing need for reforms within the criminal justice system. To address these challenges effectively, multifaceted strategies must be employed, encompassing training and education, community policing, police accountability, and revisions to warrant procedures.

Police Training and Education

Comprehensive training programs are pivotal in equipping law enforcement officers with the necessary skills and knowledge to navigate diverse and potentially tense encounters. Training should be geared towards:

De-escalation Techniques

Officers should be trained extensively in de-escalation strategies to defuse volatile situations without resorting to force. Research indicates that de-escalation training can reduce the likelihood of violent confrontations (Pickett et al., 2018).

Cultural Sensitivity: Cultural competence training can foster officers’ understanding of diverse communities, reducing the likelihood of prejudiced actions or misinterpretations during interactions (Paoline et al., 2020).

Communication Skills: Effective communication is crucial for officers to establish rapport and cooperation with individuals they encounter. Improving communication skills can prevent misunderstandings and reduce tensions (Piquero et al., 2019).

Implicit Bias Training: Recognizing and addressing implicit biases is essential to counteract racial and gender-based prejudices. Ongoing training can help officers identify and mitigate their biases (Smith et al., 2020).

Community Policing Principles: Emphasizing community policing principles in training can underscore the importance of building positive relationships with the communities officers serve (Cordner et al., 2018).

By integrating these elements into law enforcement training, officers can be better prepared to navigate diverse encounters with empathy and professionalism.

Community Policing:

Community policing is an approach that fosters collaboration and trust between law enforcement agencies and the communities they serve. It involves several key strategies:

Community Engagement: Police officers actively engage with community members to build relationships and gain insight into local concerns. This engagement helps officers better understand the needs and expectations of the community (Gowder, 2019).

Problem-Solving: Police work alongside community members to identify and address underlying issues that contribute to crime and disorder. This proactive approach aims to prevent crime rather than simply responding to it (Cordner et al., 2018).

Transparency and Accountability: Police departments should be transparent about their actions and decisions, fostering accountability and trust among community members (Klapheke et al., 2020).

Crisis Intervention Teams: Specialized teams can be established to handle situations involving individuals with mental health issues, ensuring a more compassionate and effective response (MacNamara, 2019).

By adopting community policing principles, law enforcement agencies can shift their focus from a solely punitive approach to one that emphasizes collaboration, problem-solving, and community well-being.

Police Accountability

Accountability mechanisms are critical for ensuring transparency and trust within the criminal justice system. Key strategies include:

Independent Oversight: Establishing independent oversight bodies to investigate incidents involving law enforcement officers can enhance transparency and impartiality in the investigative process. These oversight bodies should have the authority to hold officers accountable for wrongdoing (Gowder, 2019).

Body Cameras: Equipping officers with body-worn cameras can provide objective evidence of interactions, ensuring accountability and increasing transparency (Klapheke et al., 2020).

Use-of-Force Policies: Police departments should develop clear and stringent use-of-force policies that prioritize the preservation of life and the use of force as a last resort. Violations of these policies should result in disciplinary actions (MacNamara, 2019).

Data Collection and Reporting: Comprehensive data collection and reporting on police interactions, use of force incidents, and officer demographics can help identify patterns of misconduct and areas in need of reform (Smith et al., 2020).

By implementing robust accountability measures, law enforcement agencies can demonstrate their commitment to upholding ethical standards and fostering public trust.

Revisions to Warrant Procedures

The Breonna Taylor case also highlights the need for reevaluating the use of no-knock warrants and making revisions to warrant procedures:

Stricter Criteria: No-knock warrants should only be issued in exceptional circumstances where there is clear and imminent danger. Revising the criteria for obtaining such warrants can reduce the risks associated with their execution (Alexander, 2020).

Pre-Warrant Announcements: Mandating the use of pre-warrant announcements, where officers announce their presence and purpose before entering a residence, can minimize the element of surprise and the potential for violence (Klapheke et al., 2020).

Oversight and Review: An independent review process for warrant applications can ensure that judges critically assess the necessity of no-knock warrants, preventing their misuse (Paoline et al., 2020).

Community Input: Engaging with the community to develop and review warrant procedures can help ensure they align with community values and priorities (Gowder, 2019).

Revisions to warrant procedures should prioritize the safety and rights of all individuals involved while respecting the Fourth Amendment protections against unreasonable searches and seizures.

Overcoming the challenges within the criminal justice system highlighted by the Breonna Taylor case requires a holistic approach. Implementing comprehensive training and education, fostering community policing principles, establishing robust police accountability mechanisms, and revising warrant procedures are essential steps toward creating a more equitable, just, and transparent policing environment. By addressing these issues, society can work towards a system where law enforcement agencies serve and protect all individuals, regardless of their ethnicity, gender, culture, or sexual orientation.


The case of Breonna Taylor underscores the profound impact of ethnicity, gender, culture, and sexual orientation on interactions with police officers. It serves as a poignant reminder of the need for comprehensive reform within the criminal justice system to address issues of racial discrimination, gender bias, communication challenges, and ethical dilemmas. By implementing strategies such as improved training, community policing, enhanced accountability, and warrant procedure revisions, we can work towards a more equitable and just policing environment that respects the rights and dignity of all individuals.


Alexander, M. (2020). The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. The New Press.

Cordner, G., Brown, M., & Berry, C. (2018). Community policing: A critical review of recent practices. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 29(5), 478-499.

Crenshaw, K. W. (2018). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. In K. W. Crenshaw (Ed.), Critical race theory: The key writings that formed the movement (pp. 357-383). The New Press.

Delattre, E. J. (2018). Character and cops: Ethics in policing (7th ed.). Rowman & Littlefield.

Gowder, P. (2019). Police unions and police abuses. Journal of Legal Analysis, 11(2), 191-247.

Klapheke, J., Renauer, B., & Bowers, C. (2020). Officer-involved homicides: Race, police, and public opinion. Justice Quarterly, 37(6), 917-941.

MacNamara, C. C. (2019). Lethal force in American policing: A research review. Police Quarterly, 22(1), 74-102.

Pickett, J. T., Loughran, T. A., & Piquero, A. R. (2018). Do police training and education impact use of force? Results from a national survey of police officers. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 45(6), 871-891.

Smith, B. L., Haas, S. M., & West, J. M. (2020). The relationship between racial attitudes, socialization, and officer behavior. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 57(6), 823-857.


Q1: What was the Breonna Taylor case, and why did it receive widespread attention?

A1: The Breonna Taylor case involved the fatal shooting of a young African-American woman during a police raid in Louisville, Kentucky, in 2020. It gained significant attention due to concerns about racial discrimination, the use of force, and ethical issues within the criminal justice system.

Q2: What were the key themes from the course material highlighted in the Breonna Taylor case?

A2: The key themes included racial discrimination, gender bias, communication challenges, and ethical dilemmas, all of which were evident in the case and informed discussions about policing practices.

Q3: How did the conduct of the police officers impact individuals within the Breonna Taylor case?

A3: The conduct of the police officers had a profound impact, resulting in the tragic loss of Breonna Taylor’s life, legal consequences for the officers, and eroding trust between the community and law enforcement.

Q4: What ethical issues were present in the Breonna Taylor case?

A4: The ethical issues included the use of lethal force, transparency and accountability concerns within the criminal justice system, and questions surrounding the use of no-knock warrants.

Q5: How can the challenges highlighted in the Breonna Taylor case be addressed and overcome?

A5: Addressing these challenges requires strategies such as improved police training and education, community policing initiatives, enhanced accountability mechanisms, and a reevaluation of no-knock warrant procedures.

“Multifaceted Perspectives in English Literature: Exploring the Intersection of Culture, Society, and Identity”

[Your Name]
[Your Address]
[City, State, Zip Code]
[Your Email Address]
[Your Phone Number]
[Today’s Date]

[Recipient’s Name]
Atilim University
Department of English Language and Literature
Incek Campus, Ankara
06836, Turkey

Dear [Recipient’s Name],

I am writing to express my strong interest in the Ph.D. program in English Language and Literature at Atilim University, as advertised on the university’s website. As a highly motivated and dedicated individual with a passion for academic exploration and research in English literature and culture, I am eager to contribute to the distinguished academic community at Atilim University.

Having extensively researched and examined the offerings of the Department of English Language and Literature at Atilim University, I am deeply impressed with the comprehensive and diverse curriculum that the program encompasses. The focus on English Culture and Literature, encompassing the latest advancements in the field, aligns perfectly with my academic and research interests. I am particularly drawn to the department’s commitment to nurturing originality and critical thinking among its students, fostering an environment that encourages the development of innovative perspectives in the realm of academic studies.

My academic background in English Language and Literature has been characterized by a relentless pursuit of knowledge and a dedication to exploring diverse facets of the discipline. Throughout my undergraduate and graduate studies, I have engaged in a comprehensive range of courses, research projects, and practical applications that have nurtured a multifaceted understanding of English literature and its broader cultural implications.

In my undergraduate years, I laid a strong foundation by immersing myself in core courses that covered various literary periods, from the medieval to the modern era. This exposure allowed me to comprehend the evolution of literary forms and styles across time, while also appreciating the cultural and historical contexts that shaped these works. Furthermore, I delved into literary theory and criticism, equipping myself with the analytical tools necessary to deconstruct texts and explore the underlying themes and ideologies.

During my graduate studies, I had the privilege of pursuing specialized courses that provided in-depth analyses of specific literary genres, such as poetry, drama, and the novel. These advanced studies expanded my horizons, enabling me to explore intricate literary techniques, thematic complexities, and the interplay between literature and society. Engaging with seminal works from various regions and cultures, I gained a broader global perspective and a heightened sensitivity to the diverse voices and narratives that exist within the realm of English literature.

Beyond the boundaries of traditional English Literature studies, I sought interdisciplinary opportunities to enrich my knowledge further. My engagement with courses in American Culture and Literature allowed me to understand the unique contributions of American writers and thinkers to the global literary landscape. Additionally, my involvement in Comparative Literature broadened my understanding of literary traditions beyond English, enabling me to draw insightful connections between works from different cultures and time periods.

My academic background is not limited to theoretical pursuits alone; I have actively participated in literary and cultural events, which have fostered a deeper appreciation for the expressive power of language and creativity. As a result, my multifaceted knowledge extends beyond academia, encompassing a broader understanding of the impact of literature on contemporary society and the preservation of cultural heritage.

This well-rounded academic background has prepared me to tackle complex research questions and approach literary analysis from diverse perspectives. As I embark on a Ph.D. in English Language and Literature at Atilim University, I am eager to leverage this multifaceted knowledge to make original contributions to the field. I believe that my ability to contextualize texts within theoretical, historical, social, and cultural frameworks will empower me to conduct nuanced research that enriches the academic community and advances the understanding of English literature and its enduring significance.

My unwavering commitment to academic excellence serves as the cornerstone of my pursuit of a Ph.D. in English Language and Literature at Atilim University. With a profound passion for the subject matter, I am driven to push the boundaries of knowledge in this field and make meaningful contributions to the academic community. Throughout my academic journey, I have consistently sought opportunities to challenge myself intellectually and develop a deep understanding of English literature and culture.

My dedication to academic excellence is reflected in my academic achievements and research endeavors. I have consistently maintained a high level of academic performance, earning top grades and commendations for my research projects and essays. My thirst for knowledge has led me to delve into a wide range of literary works, from classical to contemporary, British to American, and beyond. I have a keen interest in exploring the connections between literature and society, and I am excited to contribute original insights to this dynamic interdisciplinary field.

As a prospective Ph.D. candidate, I am eager to undertake advanced research that not only sheds new light on existing scholarship but also paves the way for fresh perspectives and innovative approaches. I aim to contribute to the existing body of literature by engaging with underexplored texts, marginalized voices, and lesser-known historical contexts, thus enriching the field with diverse and inclusive perspectives. Furthermore, I am enthusiastic about utilizing contemporary methodologies and technologies to examine literary works through a modern lens, opening up new avenues of analysis and interpretation.

Moreover, my commitment to academic excellence extends beyond individual achievements. I am determined to actively engage with the academic community at Atilim University and beyond, participating in seminars, conferences, and academic discussions. I believe in the power of collaboration and intellectual exchange, and I am eager to work closely with esteemed faculty members and fellow scholars to foster a stimulating and supportive research environment.

Throughout my academic journey, I have consistently demonstrated a diverse range of skills that I believe will be valuable assets in the Ph.D. program in English Language and Literature at Atilim University. With a passion for academic excellence, I have maintained a strong work ethic, which has enabled me to excel in my coursework and research endeavors. Diligently balancing theoretical studies with practical applications, I have cultivated a nuanced understanding of various literary genres and critical approaches, allowing me to approach texts from multiple angles and unravel their complexities.

One of my notable strengths is my adeptness at critical thinking. I have honed this skill through extensive engagement with complex literary theories and meticulous analysis of primary texts. As a result, I have gained an ability to discern patterns, identify nuances, and offer insightful interpretations in both written and oral forms. Moreover, I have actively participated in academic discussions and debates, contributing thoughtfully to the exchange of ideas and welcoming constructive feedback from peers and professors alike.

Collaboration lies at the heart of scholarly advancement, and I take immense pride in my collaborative spirit. Recognizing the value of collective intelligence, I have actively engaged in group projects and research initiatives during my academic pursuits. Working collaboratively has not only enriched my learning experience but also enhanced my interpersonal skills. I possess an open-minded approach, valuing diverse perspectives and embracing opportunities to learn from others. My ability to foster a positive and inclusive team dynamic has been well-received by my colleagues, allowing us to achieve collective goals efficiently.

Furthermore, my collaborative spirit extends beyond the academic realm. I have been an active member of literary and cultural clubs, participating in organizing events, workshops, and seminars that promote the appreciation of literature and the arts within the community. These experiences have not only deepened my understanding of various cultural contexts but have also reinforced my commitment to fostering intellectual growth and cultural exchange.

In the Ph.D. program at Atilim University, I am eager to harness my demonstrated skills and collaborative spirit to actively engage in research projects with faculty members and fellow students. I am confident that my willingness to embrace diverse perspectives, along with my dedication to advancing the field of English Literature Culture, will contribute significantly to the academic excellence of the department and uphold the institution’s reputation as a center of innovative scholarship.

Thank you for considering my application. I have attached my curriculum vitae, academic transcripts, and a writing sample for your review. I look forward to the opportunity to discuss my candidacy further and showcase my commitment to academic excellence in English Language and Literature at Atilim University.

Yours sincerely,

[Your Name]