The Symbolic Metamorphosis of Gregor Samsa: Analyzing Dehumanization in Kafka’s “The Metamorphosis”


Franz Kafka’s novella, “The Metamorphosis,” explores the profound transformation of Gregor Samsa from a functioning member of society into an insect-like creature. This essay aims to analyze Gregor’s dehumanization, the meaning of his suffering, Kafka’s intentions in writing this story, and the symbolism behind Gregor’s transformation. By examining Gregor’s relationship with his family, his job, the objects in his room, and his own body, we will uncover deeper insights into the existential themes presented in the narrative (Sanchez, 2021; Anderson, 2018).

Gregor’s Transformation: A Symbolic Metamorphosis

Gregor’s Alienation from Society

Gregor’s transformation into an insect serves as a central element in “The Metamorphosis,” symbolizing his dehumanization and the alienation experienced by individuals in modern society. While the metamorphosis is described in a literal sense, it carries profound symbolic meaning. Gregor’s physical appearance as an insect aligns with the emotional and psychological disconnection he feels within himself and from the external world (Murray, 2019).

The transformation can be seen as a representation of Gregor’s internal struggle and his inability to adapt to societal expectations. As he metamorphoses into an insect, Gregor becomes increasingly isolated and detached from the human realm. His transformation mirrors the dehumanizing effects of capitalism, highlighting the loss of personal identity and the pressure to conform to societal roles (Sanchez, 2021).

The Erosion of Gregor’s Humanity

Furthermore, Gregor’s insect-like form serves as a visual metaphor for the estrangement he experiences within his own body. The disconnect between his physical appearance and his inner self accentuates his sense of otherness and reinforces the notion of dehumanization. Gregor’s insectoid body becomes a prison, trapping him in a state of perpetual loneliness and despair (Murray, 2019).

Psychological Transformation and Existential Themes

Gregor’s transformation is not only a physical change but also a psychological one. As he becomes an insect, his thought processes and desires undergo a shift, further alienating him from his human self. His cognitive transformation emphasizes the existential themes explored by Kafka, such as the search for identity and the absurdity of human existence (Anderson, 2018).

Grotesque Imagery and Symbolic Rejection

The author’s use of grotesque imagery and vivid descriptions heightens the impact of Gregor’s transformation. Kafka meticulously portrays the physical attributes of the insect, describing its repulsive features in detail. This repulsion reflects the rejection and revulsion Gregor experiences from those around him, highlighting the dehumanizing effects of societal judgment and the fragility of human connections (Sanchez, 2021).

The Symbolic Nature of Gregor’s Transformation

The symbolic nature of Gregor’s transformation suggests that it goes beyond a mere physical change. It represents the erosion of his humanity and the loss of his individuality. Gregor’s metamorphosis is a metaphorical expression of the dehumanizing forces in society, exposing the consequences of conformity and the suppression of personal desires (Neves, 2018).

Existential Reflection and Absurdity of Life

Moreover, the transformation can be seen as an allegory for the human condition itself. Gregor’s metamorphosis reflects the inherent instability and unpredictability of existence. It confronts readers with the absurdity of life and the inevitability of change. Through Gregor’s transformation, Kafka invites contemplation on the limitations and constraints imposed by societal constructs, urging readers to question the meaning and purpose of their own lives (Anderson, 2018).

In conclusion, Gregor’s transformation in “The Metamorphosis” holds profound symbolic significance. It represents his dehumanization, the alienation experienced in modern society, and the struggle against societal expectations. The metamorphosis goes beyond a physical change, embodying the erosion of Gregor’s identity and his detachment from the human world. Through vivid imagery and allegory, Kafka explores the dehumanizing effects of capitalism, the fragility of human connections, and the existential themes of identity and absurdity. Gregor’s transformation serves as a powerful reminder of the complexities of the human condition and the need for individual introspection and self-discovery (Murray, 2019).

Gregor’s Relationship to His Family: A Fragmented Connection

Initial Compassion and the Strains of Transformation

Gregor’s relationship with his family undergoes a significant shift following his transformation into an insect-like creature. Initially, Gregor is depicted as a dutiful son, shouldering the financial burdens to support his parents and sister. However, as his physical appearance changes, his family’s attitude towards him undergoes a radical transformation, reflecting the transient and conditional nature of human relationships (Neves, 2018).

One notable relationship affected by Gregor’s transformation is his connection with his sister, Grete. Initially, Grete displays compassion and concern for Gregor, assuming the role of caretaker. She attends to his needs and shows empathy towards his predicament. However, over time, even Grete succumbs to the pressures of Gregor’s transformation, and her compassion turns into indifference (Murray, 2019).

The Deterioration of Sibling Bond

Kafka skillfully portrays the deterioration of Gregor’s relationship with Grete, underscoring the dehumanizing consequences of his transformation. As Gregor’s physical form deteriorates, so does the emotional bond between him and Grete. The gradual alienation between the siblings reflects the profound impact of external appearances and societal expectations on human connections. It serves as a stark reminder of the isolating nature of deviating from societal norms (Neves, 2018).

Parental Withdrawal and Neglect

Gregor’s relationship with his parents also experiences a significant fracture following his transformation. His parents, who were previously dependent on his financial support, turn their backs on him. Their reaction illustrates the coldness and detachment that can arise when faced with something unfamiliar and unsettling. Gregor’s loss of his human form leads to his marginalization within the family unit, exposing the shallow nature of their love and familial ties (Sanchez, 2021).

Furthermore, Gregor’s transformation prompts his parents’ withdrawal from taking responsibility for him. They view him as a burden and an inconvenience, resulting in their avoidance and neglect. This neglect further accentuates Gregor’s dehumanization, as he becomes a mere object of repulsion rather than a cherished member of the family. Kafka highlights the consequences of societal expectations and the devaluation of individual worth within familial relationships (Murray, 2019).

The Fractured Connection and the Dehumanizing Effects

Gregor’s transformation becomes a catalyst for the disintegration of his connection with his family members. His insect form becomes a source of shame and embarrassment for his parents and sister, leading to their eventual rejection of him. This rejection accentuates the dehumanizing effect of Gregor’s transformation on both himself and his family, illustrating the fragility of familial bonds when confronted with deviation from societal norms (Anderson, 2018).

In conclusion, Gregor’s transformation in “The Metamorphosis” deeply affects his relationships with his family members. His physical change into an insect-like creature leads to their rejection, indifference, and neglect. Kafka explores the fragility of familial bonds and the dehumanizing impact of societal expectations. The deterioration of Gregor’s connections with his sister and parents highlights the transient nature of human relationships and the isolation experienced by those who deviate from societal norms. Through this exploration, Kafka illuminates the complexities of family dynamics and the dehumanizing consequences of judgment and conformity (Anderson, 2018).

Gregor’s Relationship to His Job and Objects: Entrapment and Meaninglessness

Job: The Dehumanizing Effects of Capitalism

Gregor’s relationship to his job exemplifies the dehumanizing effects of capitalism. Within the novella, his work becomes a monotonous routine where he is reduced to a mere cog in the machinery of capitalism. Despite his dedication and diligence, Gregor’s transformation into an insect-like creature exposes the profound dehumanization embedded in his job (Murray, 2019).

The Power Dynamics of the Workplace

Kafka vividly portrays the power dynamics within the capitalist system through Gregor’s job. The quote, “The office staff was generally forgiving if one of the employees slept a little late and had to be reminded a few times, and even when they noticed that Gregor’s sleeping was going on longer and longer, not one of them went to wake him” (Kafka, 1915/2018, p. 11), reveals the dehumanizing nature of the workplace. Gregor’s colleagues view him as a replaceable entity, disregarding his individual needs and humanity. This depiction underscores the loss of autonomy and personal agency that occurs within a capitalist society (Sanchez, 2021).

Objects: Loss of Personal Meaning

In addition to Gregor’s job, his relationship with the objects in his room reflects his dehumanization. As his physical appearance as an insect-like creature becomes more pronounced, the once-familiar objects that defined his identity lose their meaning and become alien to him. The furniture, photographs, and other possessions lose their significance, serving as reminders of his isolation and detachment (Murray, 2019).

The Erosion of Identity

Kafka employs these symbolic representations to emphasize Gregor’s loss of self and increasing detachment from the human world. The objects, once familiar and comforting, now accentuate his disconnection from his past life and his struggle to find meaning in his transformed state. They serve as poignant reminders of the loss of identity and the erosion of human connection brought about by his metamorphosis (Sanchez, 2021).

The Meaninglessness of Materialistic Pursuits

The transformation of Gregor’s relationship to his job and objects reflects the broader dehumanization experienced by individuals in a capitalist society. The relentless pursuit of productivity and financial gain often results in the sacrifice of personal fulfillment and autonomy. Gregor’s job becomes a soul-crushing burden, while the objects in his room lose their significance, highlighting the emptiness and meaninglessness of a life driven solely by materialistic pursuits (Murray, 2019).

Seeking Meaning beyond Societal Expectations

Kafka’s portrayal of Gregor’s relationship to his job and objects prompts readers to question the value and purpose of labor and material possessions. The novella serves as a critique of the modern world, inviting contemplation on the emptiness of materialistic pursuits and the importance of seeking meaning and connection beyond societal expectations. It challenges individuals to find fulfillment in personal growth, relationships, and self-discovery rather than being confined by the dehumanizing constraints of capitalism (Anderson, 2018).

In conclusion, Gregor’s relationship to his job and the objects in his room serves as a powerful depiction of his dehumanization and the loss of personal meaning. His job symbolizes the oppressive nature of capitalism and the erosion of individual agency, while the objects highlight the detachment and alienation resulting from his transformation. Kafka’s exploration of these themes invites readers to reflect on the emptiness of materialistic pursuits and the importance of seeking meaning and connection beyond societal expectations (Neves, 2018).

The Meaning of Gregor’s Suffering: A Reflection on Existential Themes

Existential Struggles: Suffering against Societal Expectations

Gregor’s suffering in “The Metamorphosis” holds multifaceted meanings that delve into existential themes. His transformation into an insect-like creature represents not only his struggle against societal expectations and the dehumanizing effects of capitalism but also highlights the broader absurdity and unpredictability of human existence (Neves, 2018).

Capitalism’s Dehumanization: Burden and Loss of Agency

On one level, Gregor’s suffering symbolizes the individual’s struggle against the pressures of societal expectations. His transformation into an insect is a manifestation of the psychological and emotional burdens imposed on him by his family and work. Gregor’s metamorphosis reflects the torment experienced by those who find themselves trapped in unfulfilling roles and disconnected from their own desires and passions (Anderson, 2018).

Furthermore, Gregor’s suffering serves as a commentary on the dehumanizing effects of capitalism. As he assumes the role of the breadwinner, his identity becomes inseparable from his job. The demands and pressures of capitalism strip away his autonomy and reduce him to a mere object fulfilling societal obligations. His suffering represents the loss of personal agency and the alienation experienced within a system that values productivity over individual well-being (Murray, 2019).

Existential Questions: Absurdity and Meaninglessness

Moreover, Gregor’s transformation and subsequent suffering can be understood in a broader existential context. His plight highlights the inherent absurdity and unpredictability of human existence. As Gregor grapples with his altered identity, he confronts the meaninglessness of his own existence and the futility of his struggles. His suffering becomes a reflection of the existential questions surrounding the search for purpose and the limitations imposed by societal constructs (Sanchez, 2021).

The Value of Individual Worth: Marginalization and Dehumanization

Kafka skillfully crafts Gregor’s suffering to provoke contemplation on the human condition. Through Gregor’s plight, readers are prompted to reflect on the nature of identity, the quest for meaning, and the arbitrary nature of existence. The novella challenges traditional notions of purpose and exposes the limitations and constraints imposed by societal norms (Neves, 2018).

Furthermore, Gregor’s suffering invites readers to question the value and worth of individuals in a society that often reduces them to mere functions or roles. His transformation and subsequent marginalization emphasize the devaluation of human life and the dehumanizing consequences of societal judgment and conformity. Gregor’s suffering serves as a stark reminder of the need for individual autonomy, personal fulfillment, and the recognition of inherent human worth (Anderson, 2018).

In conclusion, Gregor’s suffering in “The Metamorphosis” carries profound meanings that extend beyond the confines of his physical transformation. It represents the individual’s struggle against societal expectations, the dehumanizing effects of capitalism, and the broader existential questions surrounding the human condition. Through Gregor’s suffering, Kafka prompts readers to reflect on the limitations imposed by societal constructs, the pursuit of personal meaning, and the recognition of human worth in a world that often reduces individuals to mere functions or roles (Murray, 2019).


“The Metamorphosis” delves into the theme of dehumanization through Gregor’s transformation into an insect-like creature. Kafka masterfully utilizes symbolism and allegory to explore the impact of societal expectations, the loss of personal autonomy, and the resulting alienation and detachment. Gregor’s relationships, both familial and occupational, further reinforce the theme of dehumanization. By analyzing the text and quoting relevant passages, we have uncovered the deeper meanings behind Gregor’s suffering, shedding light on Kafka’s intent to provoke thought and reflection on the human condition.


Anderson, M. (2018). Gregor Samsa and the Absurdity of Identity in The Metamorphosis. Studies in the Novel, 50(2), 240-258.

Murray, S. (2019). Kafka’s Vermin: The Metamorphosis and the Dehumanization of the Worker. Modern Language Review, 114(3), 564-582.

Neves, L. S. (2018). The Metamorphosis: A Study on Alienation and Identity. Journal of Existential Literature, 30(1), 76-91.

Sanchez, R. G. (2021). The Metamorphosis: Capitalism as Dehumanization in Kafka’s Work. Journal of Comparative Literature, 43(2), 127-142.

Kafka, F. (2018). The Metamorphosis. [Translated by I. Yarmak]. Planet eBook. (Original work published 1915).