Describe the barriers that negatively impacted the actions and interactions that lead to the event. Describe at least two barriers.

Assignment Question

You are writing as the director of Compliance for Nightingale Hospital. This will be an executive summary to senior management describing the compliance status of Nightingale Hospital. Label each section as listed below.

A1: SENTINEL EVENT COMPETENT The candidate provides a logical description, with sufficient detail, of the sentinel event. ➢ Describe, in detail, the event from beginning to end. Stay Objective. See attached Sentinel Event Report.pdf

A2: PERSONNEL COMPETENT The candidate provides a logical explanation, with sufficient detail, of the roles of the personnel present during the sentinel event. ➢ Describe in detail the personnel involved, what they do at the facility and their role in the event. Information should be objective. Use the AFT2 task 2 transcript document as a reference and address all eight personnel that are listed.

A3: PERSONNEL ISSUES COMPETENT The candidate provides a logical discussion, with sufficient detail, of the barriers that may impede effective interaction among the personnel present during the sentinel event. ➢ Describe the barriers that negatively impacted the actions and interactions that lead to the event. Stating the opinions of the personnel, while real may not be relevant to determining the cause. Describe at least two barriers. Use the AFT2 task 2 transcript document as a reference ➢

A3A: IMPROVE INTERACTIONS COMPETENT The candidate provides an appropriate proposal, with sufficient detail, of ways to improve interactions among the personnel present. ➢ Propose and develop a solution and remedy for each barrier you identify in order to improve the interactions among the personnel. Choose a quality improvement methodology that could be used to determine the root cause of the event (Fishbone diagram) Describe why this tool will help in the investigation and why it was selected. A root cause analysis does not need to be completed.

A4: QUALITY IMPROVEMENT COMPETENT The candidate provides a logical discussion, with sufficient detail, of a quality improvement method to be used in the root cause analysis. ➢ Use attached AFT2 learning resources AFT2 Task 2 CQI Tools and Info and AFT2 Task 2 quality improvement toolkit to conduct a root cause analysis. Choose a tool that would help conduct a root cause analysis and talk about why that tool would be helpful. See Quality Improvement Tool Kit.pdf as a reference

B1: RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAM COMPETENT The candidate provides an appropriate recommendation, with sufficient detail, of a risk management program or process change to ensure that the sentinel event does not recur. ➢ Identify a risk management plan or process that you want to put I place to ensure that there’s not another child abduction. Discuss what program needs to be developed or processes that need improving to ensure that this event will not occur again. ➢ The program must describe / Include the following action steps: o Who’s accountable for the steps (Director of nursing) o Deadline for the action steps to be completed and o How are you going to measure / monitor that the steps in the future

B1A:RESOURCES COMPETENT The candidate provides a logical discussion, with sufficient detail, of resources available to support the changes. ➢ Determine what resources are needed to ensure the process changes are supported and will be successful. Discuss people, departments, and positions that will ensure that the plan or processes will be successful (Ex. Using the internet and you have a risk management program and it’s a hard stop and they have to review it or click that they’ve identified it before they move on.

C:SOURCES COMPETENT The submission includes in-text citations for sources that are properly quoted, paraphrased, or summarized and a reference list that accurately identifies the author, date, title, and source location as available.

D:PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION COMPETENT Content reflects attention to detail, is organized, and focuses on the main ideas as prescribed in the task or chosen by the candidate. Terminology is pertinent, is used correctly, and effectively conveys the intended meaning. Mechanics, usage, and grammar promote accurate interpretation and understanding.

Unveiling the Strategic Value of Forecasting Expenditures and Revenues for Enhanced Financial Planning

Financial forecasting, specifically forecasting expenditures and revenues, is a cornerstone of effective financial planning for businesses and organizations across diverse industries. This practice involves estimating future financial outcomes based on historical data, market trends, and various economic indicators. The significance of financial forecasting lies in its ability to empower decision-makers with valuable insights that contribute to informed strategic planning, resource allocation, risk management, and organizational stability.

Strategic Decision-Making

At its core, financial forecasting serves as a compass for strategic decision-making. By projecting future financial scenarios, organizations can anticipate potential opportunities and challenges. This proactive approach allows decision-makers to formulate strategies that align with overarching objectives and leverage emerging trends. For instance, an e-commerce company could utilize revenue forecasts to determine the viability of expanding its product offerings in line with projected consumer demand.

Recent research by Johnson et al. (2020) emphasizes that accurate financial forecasting facilitates the alignment of short-term and long-term organizational goals. The integration of both expenditure and revenue projections provides decision-makers with a holistic understanding of the financial landscape. This enables them to identify areas where costs can be trimmed without compromising revenue streams, thereby enhancing an organization’s resilience in dynamic business environments.

Resource Allocation

Precise forecasting of expenditures and revenues is instrumental in optimizing resource allocation. For organizations with limited resources, effective allocation is paramount to achieving strategic goals. Accurate revenue projections guide the allocation of financial resources to departments or projects with the highest potential for revenue generation.

In the contemporary business landscape, technology has significantly influenced resource allocation strategies. Smith and Thompson’s (2018) recent study underscores the importance of dynamic resource allocation based on accurate revenue forecasts. Organizations that continuously adjust resource allocation strategies based on evolving revenue projections are more likely to achieve sustainable growth and maintain a competitive edge.

Risk Management

Forecasting expenditures and revenues is an essential component of robust risk management strategies. By anticipating potential financial fluctuations, organizations can develop contingency plans to mitigate risks and uncertainties. A well-constructed financial forecast offers insights into an organization’s capacity to weather economic downturns, market shifts, or changes in consumer behavior.

In line with the research conducted by Green et al. (2019), financial forecasting supports risk assessment and management by identifying potential vulnerabilities in an organization’s financial structure. This proactive approach empowers organizations to take preventative measures, such as building cash reserves or diversifying revenue streams, to reduce their exposure to financial risks.

Furthermore, accurate financial forecasting aids organizations in evaluating debt management strategies. For instance, when expenditure forecasts indicate an impending rise in interest rates, a company might opt to refinance its debt to reduce interest expenses and enhance financial stability.

Organizational Stability

Forecasting expenditures and revenues contributes significantly to organizational stability. It provides a roadmap for sustained growth and operational continuity. By maintaining equilibrium between revenue generation and cost management, organizations ensure long-term financial solvency. Moreover, a well-established forecasting process enables organizations to detect early warning signs of financial distress and take corrective actions before issues escalate.

A pertinent example is the research conducted by Patel and Anderson (2021), underscoring the role of financial forecasting in preventing financial crises. Organizations consistently engaged in accurate revenue and expenditure forecasting are better positioned to identify financial imbalances and take proactive measures. This approach bolsters overall stability and resilience, preventing disruptive financial upheavals.


In conclusion, the practice of forecasting expenditures and revenues holds immense value for effective financial planning and decision-making within organizations. It extends beyond numerical predictions, acting as a strategic instrument for decision-makers to navigate complex business environments. By providing insights into future financial scenarios, organizations can make informed choices, allocate resources efficiently, mitigate risks, and maintain stability. Continuous refinement of forecasting methodologies empowers organizations to enhance their financial planning processes, positioning themselves for sustained success in an ever-evolving landscape.


  1. Green, R., White, S., & Davis, R. (2019). Financial Forecasting and Risk Management: A Comparative Study. Journal of Financial Management, 50(2), 173-192.
  2. Johnson, M., Smith, K., Brown, A., & Thompson, L. (2020). Integrating Revenue and Expenditure Forecasting for Strategic Decision-Making. Strategic Finance, 82(4), 38-47.
  3. Patel, R., & Anderson, J. (2021). Preventing Financial Crises: The Role of Accurate Forecasting. Journal of Risk Management, 65(3), 275-292.
  4. Smith, G., & Thompson, E. (2018). Dynamic Resource Allocation Based on Revenue Forecasting. Journal of Strategic Resource Management, 40(1), 55-68.

The Crucial Role of Integration Management in Project Success


In the realm of project management, the success of a project relies heavily on various interconnected elements working cohesively. One of the pivotal components that underpin project success is integration management. This essay delves into the significance of integration management within project management contexts. It explores why key aspects of integration management are crucial, the importance they hold, and the potential consequences of their absence during a project. Drawing on peer-reviewed articles published between 2018 and 2023, this essay provides an in-depth analysis of the role of integration management in ensuring project success.

Importance of Integration Management

Integration management refers to the coordination and harmonization of all project components to achieve project objectives effectively and efficiently. It entails integrating different project processes, knowledge areas, and stakeholders to ensure seamless execution. The key aspects of integration management include project initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and controlling, and project closure. These elements work in tandem to create a unified project management framework that ensures project success.

Project Initiation

Project initiation sets the foundation for the entire project lifecycle. It involves defining the project’s scope, objectives, stakeholders, and overall feasibility. According to Turner and Müller (2018), a clear project initiation phase facilitates alignment between stakeholders and helps in establishing a common understanding of project goals. Without proper project initiation, stakeholders may have conflicting expectations, leading to miscommunication, scope creep, and project failure.

Project Planning

Effective project planning involves defining tasks, scheduling, resource allocation, risk assessment, and creating a detailed project management plan. A study by Wang et al. (2020) highlights that meticulous project planning enables the identification of potential bottlenecks and risks, which in turn assists in devising strategies to mitigate these challenges. In the absence of comprehensive planning, a project may encounter delays, resource shortages, and budget overruns, hampering its success.

Project Execution

During project execution, the project management plan is put into action, and tasks are carried out according to the predefined schedule. Successful execution requires seamless collaboration between different teams and stakeholders. A study by Walker et al. (2019) emphasizes that integration management ensures effective communication and coordination between teams, preventing duplication of efforts and ensuring that the project stays on track. Inadequate execution coordination can result in delays, rework, and compromised project quality.

Monitoring and Controlling

Monitoring and controlling involve tracking project progress, comparing it with the project plan, identifying deviations, and taking corrective actions as needed. According to Zhai et al. (2021), integration management plays a vital role in monitoring and controlling by providing a centralized mechanism to assess project performance holistically. Without proper monitoring and controlling, issues can escalate unnoticed, leading to missed deadlines, scope deviations, and ultimately project failure.

Project Closure

The project closure phase involves finalizing all project activities, delivering the project’s output to the client, and conducting post-project evaluations. A study by Lopes and Almeida (2023) asserts that integration management during project closure ensures that all loose ends are tied, lessons learned are captured, and stakeholders are satisfied with the project’s outcomes. Neglecting proper project closure can result in unfinished tasks, unresolved issues, and a lack of organizational learning for future projects.

Consequences of Inadequate Integration Management

The absence of integration management can have far-reaching consequences for a project’s success. One of the primary consequences is a lack of alignment between project stakeholders. When project initiation lacks clarity, stakeholders may have differing interpretations of project objectives, leading to confusion and disputes. Additionally, insufficient project planning can lead to scope creep, where project scope expands beyond the initial agreement, causing delays, increased costs, and strained relationships with stakeholders.

Inadequate project execution coordination can result in duplication of efforts, communication breakdowns, and unproductive conflicts between teams. Without proper monitoring and controlling mechanisms, project deviations may go unnoticed until they escalate into major issues, causing project timelines to derail, budgets to exceed, and quality to suffer. Finally, neglecting proper project closure can leave loose ends untied, preventing a thorough assessment of the project’s successes and failures, which is essential for continuous improvement.


Integration management is an indispensable aspect of project management that ensures the seamless coordination of all project elements. The key aspects of integration management, including project initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and controlling, and project closure, collectively contribute to project success. A plethora of peer-reviewed articles published between 2018 and 2023 have highlighted the importance of integration management in various contexts. This essay has shown that without integration management, projects can face challenges such as misalignment among stakeholders, scope creep, communication breakdowns, and compromised project quality. Therefore, project managers must recognize the critical role of integration management and diligently implement it to ensure the successful completion of projects.


Lopes, R. M., & Almeida, R. M. (2023). Enhancing Project Closure Through Integration Management: Lessons from Case Studies. International Journal of Project Management, 41, 198-207.

Turner, R., & Müller, R. (2018). Communication and Collaboration in Project Initiation: An Exploratory Case Study. International Journal of Project Management, 36(1), 44-55.

Walker, D. H. T., Lloyd-Walker, B., & Shan, W. (2019). Coordination Mechanisms for Complex Projects: A Case Study. International Journal of Project Management, 37(1), 97-109.

Wang, Y., Fan, S., Zhang, L., & Zhang, H. (2020). Integrated Project Planning for Complex Projects: A Hybrid Approach. International Journal of Project Management, 38(1), 53-66.

Zhai, G., Dong, Y., & Wang, S. (2021). Integrated Performance Assessment for Complex Projects: A Structured Approach. International Journal of Project Management, 39(1), 39-53.

Government Frameworks for Managing Legal, Ethical, and Security Risks in Organizations: An Evaluation and Comparative Analysis


In today’s complex and interconnected business environment, organizations face numerous legal, ethical, and security risks that can significantly impact their operations and reputation. To effectively address these risks, it is crucial for organizations to adopt appropriate frameworks provided by the government. This essay aims to explain and evaluate different government frameworks and identify a framework that can provide structure for an organization’s potential legal, ethical, and security risks. The evaluation will be based on scholarly and credible references, with a focus on recent research conducted between 2018 and 2023.

Government Frameworks for Risk Management

Legal Risk
Legal risks pose significant challenges for organizations, as non-compliance with laws and regulations can lead to severe consequences, including financial penalties and reputational damage. Governments have implemented frameworks to help organizations navigate legal risks effectively. One prominent framework in this regard is the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) implemented by the European Union (EU) in 2018.

The GDPR aims to protect the privacy and personal data of individuals by establishing strict rules for data handling and processing (Hatzakis, 2020). It requires organizations to obtain explicit consent for data collection, ensure the security of personal data, and provide individuals with the right to access and control their information. The GDPR has extraterritorial reach, impacting not only EU-based organizations but also those outside the EU that handle EU citizens’ data.

The effectiveness of the GDPR lies in its comprehensive approach to data protection. Organizations that comply with the GDPR have experienced enhanced data management practices and improved customer trust (Hatzakis, 2020). The framework encourages organizations to implement privacy-by-design principles, embed data protection in their processes, and adopt proactive measures to mitigate data breaches.

However, critics argue that the GDPR’s stringent requirements can place a heavy burden on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) (Lusoli & Ward, 2021). Compliance with the GDPR necessitates investing in resources and expertise, which may be financially challenging for smaller organizations. These concerns highlight the need for flexibility and tailored guidance for SMEs to effectively manage legal risks without impeding their operations.

To address the challenges faced by organizations, regulators should consider providing clearer guidance and support to facilitate compliance. Regular updates and clarifications on the interpretation of GDPR provisions can help organizations navigate the complex legal landscape (Hatzakis, 2020). Additionally, governments should explore mechanisms to assist SMEs in implementing the GDPR effectively, such as providing educational resources, training programs, and simplified compliance procedures (Lusoli & Ward, 2021).

Ethical Risk
Ethical risks pose significant challenges for organizations, as they involve potential violations of moral and social norms, which can lead to reputational damage and loss of stakeholder trust. Governments often establish frameworks and regulatory bodies to guide organizations in managing ethical risks effectively.

One prominent framework in this regard is the Institute of Business Ethics (IBE) Code of Ethics. The IBE, based in the United Kingdom, provides organizations with a comprehensive framework for ethical conduct (Institute of Business Ethics, 2021). The code sets out principles and guidelines that promote ethical behavior, integrity, and transparency within organizations.

Implementing ethical frameworks like the IBE’s code can have a positive impact on an organization’s reputation and stakeholder trust. Research by Morsing and Oswald (2018) suggests that organizations that adopt and enforce ethical codes are more likely to be seen as responsible and trustworthy. Such frameworks provide a clear ethical compass and help organizations navigate complex ethical dilemmas, ensuring that their actions align with societal expectations.

However, it is essential for ethical frameworks to be regularly updated to address emerging ethical challenges in a rapidly evolving business landscape. The IBE, for example, periodically reviews and revises its code to ensure its relevance in the face of changing ethical norms and expectations (Institute of Business Ethics, 2021). This adaptability is crucial to address emerging ethical risks, such as those related to emerging technologies or global supply chains.

To strengthen the effectiveness of ethical frameworks, governments can play a crucial role by promoting awareness and adoption of these frameworks. Governments can collaborate with industry associations and professional bodies to educate organizations about the importance of ethical conduct and provide guidance on implementing ethical frameworks (Morsing & Oswald, 2018). Additionally, governments can incentivize organizations to adopt ethical frameworks through recognition programs or preferential treatment in procurement processes.

Security Risk
Security risks pose a significant threat to organizations, encompassing vulnerabilities in information systems, infrastructure, and intellectual property. Governments play a crucial role in providing frameworks to guide organizations in managing security risks effectively.

One notable government framework in this domain is the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Cybersecurity Framework. Developed by the United States government, this framework offers a structured approach to managing security risks (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2018). It consists of five core functions: identify, protect, detect, respond, and recover, providing a comprehensive framework for organizations to assess and mitigate cybersecurity threats.

The NIST Cybersecurity Framework has proven effective in managing security risks. Research by Volkamer et al. (2019) demonstrates that organizations implementing the framework experience reduced cybersecurity incidents and improved incident response capabilities. By following the framework’s guidelines, organizations can identify and prioritize their critical assets, implement protective measures, detect and respond to security incidents, and establish recovery processes.

However, critics argue that the NIST framework may not adequately address the unique security challenges faced by specific industries. Different sectors, such as healthcare or finance, have distinct regulatory requirements and risk landscapes that may require specialized security frameworks (Raghavan & Tijani, 2021). Therefore, a tailored approach that considers industry-specific security risks may be necessary to effectively manage security risks in these sectors.

To enhance the effectiveness of security frameworks, collaboration between governments and industry stakeholders is essential. Governments can engage with industry associations, cybersecurity experts, and organizations to understand the specific security challenges faced by different sectors (Raghavan & Tijani, 2021). This collaboration can lead to the development of industry-specific guidelines or complementary frameworks that address unique security concerns.

Furthermore, governments should prioritize ongoing research and development in cybersecurity to stay ahead of emerging threats and technologies. By investing in research, governments can contribute to the continuous improvement and evolution of security frameworks. Additionally, governments can support organizations by providing resources, training programs, and information sharing platforms to enhance their cybersecurity capabilities.

Evaluation of Government Frameworks

The effectiveness of government frameworks in managing legal, ethical, and security risks depends on various factors, including their comprehensiveness, adaptability, and enforceability. Evaluating these frameworks requires considering their practical application and impact on organizations.

The GDPR has been widely recognized for its comprehensive approach to data protection. Research by Hatzakis (2020) indicates that organizations complying with the GDPR have experienced increased trust from customers and improved data management practices. However, some scholars argue that the GDPR’s strict requirements can be burdensome for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) (Lusoli & Ward, 2021). Therefore, while effective, the framework may need adaptation to accommodate the diverse needs of organizations.

The IBE’s Code of Ethics provides organizations with clear guidelines to promote ethical conduct. Research by Morsing and Oswald (2018) highlights that implementing ethical frameworks, like the IBE’s code, can enhance an organization’s reputation and stakeholder trust. However, it is essential to ensure that these frameworks are regularly updated to address emerging ethical challenges in a rapidly evolving business landscape.

The NIST Cybersecurity Framework has proven effective in managing security risks. A study by Volkamer et al. (2019) found that organizations implementing the NIST framework experienced reduced cybersecurity incidents and improved incident response capabilities. However, some critics argue that the framework does not address the unique security challenges faced by specific industries, such as healthcare or finance (Raghavan & Tijani, 2021). Therefore, a more tailored approach may be required to address industry-specific security risks.


Government frameworks play a vital role in guiding organizations in managing legal, ethical, and security risks. The GDPR, IBE’s Code of Ethics, and the NIST Cybersecurity Framework are exemplary frameworks that provide structure for organizations’ risk management efforts. While these frameworks have proven effective, there is room for improvement in terms of adaptability, inclusiveness for SMEs, and industry-specific considerations. Organizations should carefully evaluate these frameworks and tailor them to their unique needs, ensuring compliance with applicable laws and regulations while upholding high ethical standards and robust security measures.


Hatzakis, T. (2020). Understanding the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR): A legal, business, practical and strategic perspective. Computer Law & Security Review, 39, 101362.

Institute of Business Ethics. (2021). IBE Code of Ethics. Retrieved from

Lusoli, W., & Ward, S. (2021). SMEs and GDPR: The impact of privacy regulation on small and medium-sized enterprises. International Small Business Journal, 39(5), 390–411.

National Institute of Standards and Technology. (2018). Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity. Retrieved from

Morsing, M., & Oswald, D. (2018). The firm and the bad citizen: Towards an expanded understanding of corporate responsibility in the era of globalization. Journal of Business Ethics, 147(4), 775-790.

Raghavan, S., & Tijani, B. (2021). Evaluation of the NIST cybersecurity framework for protecting critical infrastructures in industry sectors. International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection, 33, 100408.

Volkamer, M., Renaud, K., Kunz, A., & Renkema-Padmos, A. (2019). The NIST Cybersecurity Framework: An analysis of its application to improve cybersecurity in the healthcare sector. Health Informatics Journal, 25(1), 29-41.