Write an annotated bibliography as the next step toward your final Research Paper. Your Annotated Bibliography must contain a current APA-formatted title page and at least 5 scholarly sources in addition to the course textbooks, lectures, and the Bible. One of those sources MUST be a professional journal article (scholarly journal)
All sources must be scholarly. Most non-scholarly sources fall into one of the following categories:
• Periodicals – These are intended for a lay audience, not a scholarly audience, and are also known as magazines.
• Certain Websites – Many websites are not research-based and are, therefore, not scholarly. Be cautious when using web-based sources.
Many students are tempted to try doing all their research solely using the Internet; however, there is no substitute for the library. You can access scholarly journals and excellent research online via the Jerry Falwell Library; use this tool instead of relying on an Internet search engine.
For each source, you will provide the reference in current APA format, followed by 2–3 sentences that serve to summarize the source and what it will accomplish in your paper. Be sure to provide a summary of the source, NOT an evaluation. Consider the following questions as you summarize your sources:
• What are the main arguments?
• What is the point of the book or article?
• What topics are covered?
• If someone asked what this article/book is about, what would you say?
For more information about writing an annotated bibliography, including examples in APA format, click here.
Discipline Styles of Children
Although there are new parenting and child discipline books, the main parenting ideas are the five types of discipline which have been recommended by psychologists for a long time. Experts do not agree on the best discipline style, the five strategies have been effective in disciplining children and young adults. Certainly, determining the best discipline is depended on the choices and culture of the family. Furthermore, the parents need to understand their children’s needs and personal discipline philosophies. Since there is no single discipline style that will work for all families, parents need to explore the different styles to find the fittest for the family. Indeed, the parent must ensure they understand their child’s behavior. It is a task that needs patience since it is time-consuming (Collett et al., 2001). Guardians and parents should learn all the discipline strategies and determine the one that best fits their families. The paper discusses the various discipline strategies that parents can utilize for their children.
Positive discipline is one of the strategies recommended by psychologists. This form of discipline is based on encouragement and praise. Parents using this strategy are advised to focus less on punishments. Additionally, guardians should make the punishment more of a teaching experience for the children. Parents educate the kids on problem-solving skills which could help if they found themselves in the same situation again. In positive discipline, family meetings are more of an authoritative approach to communicate and instill morals in children. An example is a parent helping a child do homework after they have refused. Instead of the parents punishing the child, the parents take responsibility for helping with the homework and this will be a learning time for the child (Collett et al., 2001). In more developed countries, parents prefer this form of discipline as it installs positive morals into children.
Another type of discipline is gentle discipline. The gentle discipline focuses on preventing problems from occurring. Certainly, redirection is utilized to steer children from engaging in bad behavior. Indeed, kids know the consequences of making mistakes but the discipline does not instill shame or fear. Instead of harsh punishments, gentle discipline is advised parents to use distractions and humor as parents punish their children. This strategy mainly focuses on parents controlling their own emotions while addressing children with bad behavior. An example is where a child has refused to do homework and parents ask if they prefer to write an essay on why they did not do the homework or do the homework. The humor makes it easier for the child to understand the consequences of these mistakes.
Boundary-bases discipline is also highly recommended in disciplining children. This style sets clear boundaries and rules that children must follow. Children a provided with a choice to either follow the rules or face natural consequences. Parents using this style are likely to tell their children not to use any electronic devices before completing their school assignments. Another style is behavior modification (Halpenny et al., 2010). The style focuses on the negative and positive consequences of committing certain actions. Misbehavior is countered through denial of some privileges at home or school. In this style, parents are rewarded for good performance and punished when they misbehave. Emotional coaching is the final style in parents and disciplining children. The process involves teaching children about their feelings and how to control them. Children are taught that feelings are normal and show the best ways to handle them.
Collett, B. R., Gimpel, G. A., Greenson, J. N., & Gunderson, T. L. (2001). Assessment of discipline styles among parents of preschool through school-age children. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 23(3), 163-170.
Halpenny, A. M., Nixon, E., & Watson, D. (2010). Summary report on parents’ and children’s perspectives on parenting styles and discipline in Ireland.
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