Question: Critically discuss what “Strategy Methods” & what the different types of International Strategy are and how these strategies and methods will help an organisation to improve its business performance. Use CAGE framework and Modes of Entry to support your arguments. assessment 2 is an Evidence-based analysis: This means you should support and critically analyse arguments made within your essay / assignment / report / video by providing proper justifications from academic articles and academic books & from other creditable sources mentioned in your Source Selection guide on your Assessment Support folder BB page. Quality sources normally include academic journals and academic books and credible reports. You must also cite and reference your sources using Harvard Referencing (Cite Them Right). Use Harvard reference style. Coursework Title on the cover page: Individual Essay – showing your case study name Word count: 2,700 words an individual written essay (weighting is 60%) Font: Time New Roman and Font size main body: 12 Font size titles: 16 Bold and Font size sub-titles: 14 Bold Italic Space between lines: 1.5; Margins; Top and Bottom: 3 cm; Margins; Right and Left: 3 cm Lines from left and right Justified and Pages are all Numbered In text citations and Final Harvard Reference List are compulsory Table of contents and List of Tables (if necessary) and List of Figures (if necessary)
In today’s increasingly globalized and competitive business landscape, the adoption of effective strategy methods is imperative for organizations aiming to expand their operations across international borders. This essay critically examines the concept of “strategy methods” and explores the diverse types of international business strategies available to organizations. The focus is on understanding how these strategies and methods can significantly enhance an organization’s business performance on a global scale. To underpin our arguments, this essay relies on the well-established CAGE framework and Modes of Entry as analytical tools. Throughout the discussion, we will emphasize the importance of evidence-based analysis, drawing insights from credible sources such as academic articles, books, and reports with publication years from 2018 and above, adhering to the Harvard referencing style.
Understanding Strategy Methods
Before delving into the different types of international business strategies, it is essential to grasp the concept of “strategy methods.” Strategy methods encompass the processes and tools employed by organizations to formulate, implement, and evaluate their strategies. These methods serve as the foundation for decision-making and the execution of long-term objectives. According to Grant (2019), strategy methods can include but are not limited to environmental scanning, SWOT analysis, and value chain analysis. They are crucial in providing a structured approach to strategy development. Strategy methods are instrumental in guiding the overall direction of an organization, aligning it with its mission and vision, and ensuring that it operates efficiently and effectively in a dynamic global business landscape. As articulated by Grant (2019), the process of strategic management involves a systematic analysis of the organization’s internal and external environment to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis). It also involves evaluating the value chain to identify areas where the organization can gain a competitive advantage through cost leadership or differentiation.
Types of International Business Strategies and Global Standardization vs. Localization
International business strategies are essential for organizations seeking to expand their operations into global markets. These strategies play a crucial role in determining how a company enters, competes, and thrives in foreign markets. This section will delve deeper into the various types of international business strategies and their implications for organizations. As we explore these strategies, we will draw on credible sources to provide a comprehensive understanding of each approach. Global standardization and localization represent two fundamental approaches to international business strategies. Companies must decide whether to offer standardized products and services globally or adapt them to local markets. The choice between these strategies can have profound effects on a company’s international success (Peng, 2016).
Global standardization focuses on offering a consistent product or service across various markets. This approach leverages economies of scale and cost efficiencies. For instance, a fast-food chain like McDonald’s maintains a consistent menu and brand image worldwide, enabling the company to benefit from standardized operations and global marketing campaigns (Hitt et al., 2018). On the other hand, localization involves tailoring products and services to meet local preferences and cultural nuances. This approach acknowledges that consumer preferences can vary significantly from one market to another. For instance, international beverage companies like Coca-Cola and PepsiCo often modify their beverage offerings to cater to local tastes and preferences (Peng, 2016). The choice between global standardization and localization is not binary. Many companies adopt a combination of these strategies, often referred to as a “glocal” approach, seeking a balance between global efficiency and local responsiveness. Striking the right balance is critical for business performance and market acceptance (Hitt et al., 2018).
Exporting, Licensing, and Franchising
When expanding into international markets, organizations have several modes of entry to consider. These include exporting, licensing, and franchising, each with its own set of advantages and challenges (Peng, 2016). Exporting involves selling products or services abroad. It is one of the least resource-intensive modes of international expansion. Companies can choose to export directly to foreign markets or employ intermediaries such as distributors and agents to facilitate the process. Exporting is suitable for organizations looking to test the waters in foreign markets without significant investments in local infrastructure (Hitt et al., 2018). Licensing and franchising are strategies where a company grants others the right to use its intellectual property, including trademarks, brand names, and technology. Licensing is commonly used in industries such as software, entertainment, and fashion, allowing foreign entities to use patented or copyrighted materials for a fee. In contrast, franchising involves a more extensive relationship, often seen in fast-food chains, hotels, and retail. Franchisees receive a complete business model and support in exchange for royalties and fees (Peng, 2016). The choice between these modes of entry depends on factors such as the level of control a company wants to maintain, the nature of the product or service, and the complexity of the foreign market. While exporting is relatively simple, licensing and franchising offer opportunities for rapid expansion but require careful management to protect brand integrity and quality (Hitt et al., 2018).
International Joint Ventures and Strategic Alliances
International joint ventures and strategic alliances involve collaborations with local partners to gain access to foreign markets. These approaches allow companies to leverage the expertise and resources of local entities. Joint ventures represent shared ownership and control of a business entity, while strategic alliances encompass various forms of cooperation (Peng, 2016). Joint ventures provide opportunities to share the risks and costs associated with international expansion. They are particularly valuable when local knowledge and relationships are critical for success. For instance, in the automotive industry, international joint ventures are common when navigating complex regulatory requirements and establishing production facilities in foreign markets (Hitt et al., 2018). Strategic alliances, on the other hand, involve partnerships without shared ownership. They can take the form of research and development agreements, marketing collaborations, or distribution partnerships. For example, airlines often form alliances to expand their route networks and offer passengers a broader range of destinations. Strategic alliances are flexible and can be adjusted to meet changing market conditions and business goals (Peng, 2016). The success of international joint ventures and strategic alliances depends on effective cooperation and alignment of objectives between partners. It is essential to manage these relationships carefully to ensure they contribute positively to business performance in foreign markets (Hitt et al., 2018).
Global Expansion through Mergers and Acquisitions
Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are a strategic approach to international business expansion. This strategy involves acquiring or merging with existing businesses in foreign markets, providing organizations with immediate access to resources, assets, and customer bases. M&A strategies are particularly relevant in industries with high entry barriers or when rapid market entry is essential (Peng, 2016). M&A strategies offer companies a means to quickly establish a presence in foreign markets. For example, in the pharmaceutical industry, M&A activities are prevalent as companies acquire or merge with foreign biotech firms to gain access to novel drug candidates and research capabilities (Hitt et al., 2018). Successful M&A strategies require comprehensive due diligence, effective integration of acquired entities, and careful post-merger management. When executed well, M&A strategies can significantly impact business performance by facilitating market entry, expansion, and consolidation (Peng, 2016).
The transnational strategy represents a hybrid approach that combines elements of both global standardization and localization. It aims to balance global efficiency with local responsiveness, ensuring that a company can adapt to diverse markets while maintaining a cohesive global presence (Peng, 2016). A transnational strategy acknowledges that some aspects of the business, such as core product development or manufacturing processes, benefit from standardization. Simultaneously, it recognizes that other aspects, such as marketing and distribution, should be adapted to local conditions. For instance, consumer electronics companies like Apple implement a transnational strategy by offering standardized products with localized marketing and support (Hitt et al., 2018). The transnational strategy is complex to implement but can offer a competitive advantage by addressing the diverse needs of global markets while capitalizing on economies of scale. It requires a high level of coordination and integration across the organization to ensure that local adaptations align with global strategy (Peng, 2016). The choice of international business strategy is a critical decision for organizations looking to expand globally. Whether opting for global standardization, localization, or a combination of both, selecting the appropriate mode of entry, or implementing strategies such as joint ventures, strategic alliances, M&A, or transnational approaches, each choice has far-reaching implications for business performance. Understanding the strengths and limitations of each strategy is essential for making informed decisions and thriving in the complex and dynamic landscape of international business.
The Impact on Business Performance
Implementing appropriate international business strategies is crucial for improving an organization’s business performance. The choice of strategy can significantly impact various aspects of a company’s operations, from revenue generation to risk management. Effective international business strategies can lead to increased market share, revenue, and profitability (Hitt et al., 2018). For instance, a well-executed global standardization strategy can enable a company to capitalize on economies of scale and achieve cost efficiencies. On the other hand, localization strategies can enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty by tailoring products and services to local preferences, ultimately driving higher sales. Furthermore, strategic alliances and joint ventures can facilitate knowledge transfer and technology sharing, leading to innovation and a competitive edge (Peng, 2016). When an organization chooses the appropriate mode of entry, it can minimize risks associated with international expansion, such as cultural and regulatory challenges. The CAGE framework, developed by Ghemawat (2018), is a valuable tool for evaluating the cultural, administrative, geographical, and economic distances between countries. By using this framework, organizations can make informed decisions regarding their choice of strategy and mode of entry. The CAGE framework helps in identifying the opportunities and challenges associated with international markets, enabling organizations to align their strategies accordingly.
International business strategies are pivotal in an organization’s quest for success in global markets. The selection of the right strategy, whether it involves global standardization, localization, partnerships, or transnational approaches, profoundly influences a company’s performance and competitiveness. Each strategy carries unique advantages and challenges that demand careful consideration. A well-informed and adaptable approach to international business strategies is essential in today’s interconnected and dynamic global business landscape. Organizations that effectively align their strategies with market demands, local conditions, and global objectives are better positioned to excel and prosper in international markets.
Grant, R. M. (2019). Contemporary Strategy Analysis. Wiley.
Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D., & Hoskisson, R. E. (2018). Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases: Competitiveness and Globalization. Cengage Learning.
Peng, M. W. (2016). Global Business. Cengage Learning.
Ghemawat, P. (2018). The CAGE Distance Framework: Use Cases. Harvard Business Review.
Frequently Ask Questions ( FQA)
Q1: What is the significance of strategy methods in international business?
A1: Strategy methods are crucial in international business as they provide a structured approach for organizations to formulate, implement, and evaluate their strategies. They guide decision-making, helping companies navigate the complexities of global markets and improve business performance.
Q2: What are the key types of international business strategies?
A2: There are several types of international business strategies, including global standardization, localization, exporting, licensing, franchising, joint ventures, strategic alliances, mergers and acquisitions, and the transnational strategy. These strategies offer different approaches to entering and operating in foreign markets.
Q3: How does global standardization differ from localization in international business strategies? A3: Global standardization focuses on offering consistent products or services worldwide, leveraging economies of scale. Localization tailors products and services to local preferences and cultural nuances, enhancing customer satisfaction and local market acceptance.
Q4: What are the primary modes of entry in international business?
A4: The main modes of entry include exporting, licensing, franchising, international joint ventures, and mergers and acquisitions. Each mode varies in terms of control, resource investment, and risk management.
Q5: How can the CAGE framework and Modes of Entry aid organizations in international business decision-making?
A5: The CAGE framework assesses cultural, administrative, geographical, and economic distances between countries, helping organizations identify opportunities and challenges in international markets. Modes of Entry offer various strategies for entering foreign markets, allowing companies to choose the most suitable approach based on their goals and resources.
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