Gender Representation in Modern Advertising: Rhetorical Analysis and Impact on Societal Perceptions


The modern world is inundated with advertising, a pervasive force that shapes our perceptions, desires, and social norms. As we interact with these ads daily, we might not always consider the nuanced rhetorical strategies employed to convey messages. This essay aims to analyze the rhetoric of gender representation in contemporary advertising, shedding light on the ways advertisers utilize various genre conventions to construct and perpetuate certain gender roles and ideals. By drawing on a range of scholarly sources, this analysis will provide a comprehensive understanding of how gender is rhetorically framed in advertisements within the past five years (2018-2023).

Genre Conventions in Advertising

Advertising is a distinct genre with its own set of conventions that contribute to the formation of meaning. In the context of gender representation, these conventions are particularly potent in shaping societal perceptions of masculinity and femininity. A common genre convention in advertisements is the portrayal of women as objects of desire, often employing sexualized imagery to appeal to male consumers (Gill, 2019). This trope can be observed in various product categories, from fragrances to automobiles. Conversely, men are frequently depicted as strong, dominant, and in control, reinforcing traditional gender norms (Sternadori, 2020).

Rhetorical Strategies in Gendered Advertisements

Rhetorical strategies play a pivotal role in conveying and reinforcing gender stereotypes. One prevalent strategy is the use of visual symbolism. Advertisements often employ color schemes, such as pastel shades for feminine products and bold colors for masculine products, reinforcing the binary distinction between genders (Butler, 2018). Moreover, poses and body language contribute to the construction of gender roles. Women are often posed in passive and submissive positions, while men are presented in assertive and dominant poses (Peirce, 2021). These visual cues not only influence consumer behavior but also contribute to the reinforcement of societal gender norms.

The Impact of Advertising on Gender Perceptions

The effects of gendered advertising are profound and multifaceted. Research indicates that exposure to stereotypical gender portrayals can lead to the internalization of these roles, contributing to the perpetuation of traditional gender norms (Loughnan et al., 2019). Young children, in particular, are highly susceptible to the influence of advertising and can develop skewed perceptions of their own gender identity and the roles they should fulfill (Grauerholz, 2022). The constant barrage of idealized images in advertisements can foster feelings of inadequacy and pressure to conform to these unrealistic standards (Holland et al., 2020).

Challenging the Norm: Subversion in Advertising

While many advertisements adhere to traditional gender norms, some brands are actively challenging these conventions. This subversion can take various forms, from depicting non-binary individuals to showcasing unconventional family structures. These efforts signal a growing awareness of the need to represent the diversity of human experiences and identities in advertising (Larsen, 2021). Brands like Nike and Dove have garnered attention for their campaigns celebrating body positivity and inclusivity, which can contribute to positive societal changes in how individuals perceive their own bodies and identities.

Media Literacy and Countering Gendered Advertising: Fostering Critical Engagement

Promoting media literacy has emerged as a crucial strategy in countering the influence of gendered advertising, empowering individuals to engage critically with the messages presented in advertisements. Media literacy equips individuals with the tools to dissect and interpret the persuasive techniques that advertisers employ, enabling them to discern between constructed images and reality (Brown & Witherspoon, 2019). In a society where advertisements inundate every aspect of daily life, media literacy offers a shield against the potentially harmful effects of distorted gender representations.

Media Literacy as a Tool for Deconstruction
Media literacy empowers individuals to deconstruct the various elements of an advertisement, from visual cues to underlying messages. By analyzing how advertisements construct gender roles, individuals can become attuned to the ways in which traditional stereotypes are perpetuated and challenged. This critical engagement enables viewers to recognize that the portrayal of women as passive and men as dominant is not an inherent truth but a constructed narrative (Butler, 2018). With media literacy skills, individuals can identify the visual symbolism and poses used to reinforce these stereotypes, fostering a deeper understanding of the complexities behind seemingly innocuous ads.

Empowering Educators and Parents
The role of educators and parents in promoting media literacy is pivotal. They serve as guides in helping young minds navigate the complex landscape of advertising. Incorporating media literacy education into curricula can teach students to approach advertisements with a critical eye, enabling them to question the messages presented (Brown & Witherspoon, 2019). By initiating discussions about the tactics advertisers use and encouraging students to analyze the portrayal of gender, educators can empower the next generation to be discerning consumers of media. Similarly, parents can engage in conversations with their children, helping them develop the skills to challenge societal norms and to recognize the constructed nature of gender representations in advertising.

Media Literacy and Empowerment
Media literacy not only enhances critical thinking but also empowers individuals to resist and reject harmful portrayals of gender. As individuals become more adept at identifying the tactics used to construct gender roles, they can actively choose to engage with media that aligns with their values and challenges harmful stereotypes. This empowerment can lead to a shift in consumer behavior, with individuals supporting brands that prioritize diversity and inclusivity (Larsen, 2021). By making informed choices about the media they consume, individuals contribute to a demand for more progressive and representative advertising, encouraging brands to rethink their strategies.

Challenging Advertising Norms Through Media Literacy
Media literacy also encourages individuals to challenge advertising norms and demand change. When armed with the knowledge of how advertisements construct and perpetuate gender roles, individuals are more likely to voice their concerns and advocate for more responsible advertising practices. This collective action can lead to a broader societal shift in how gender is portrayed in the media. Brands that face scrutiny for reinforcing harmful stereotypes may be compelled to revise their strategies to better align with evolving societal values (Larsen, 2021). By leveraging media literacy as a tool for activism, individuals can become catalysts for positive change in the advertising industry.

Media literacy stands as a potent weapon against the influence of gendered advertising, providing individuals with the skills to critically engage with the messages presented in advertisements. By fostering an understanding of the techniques used to construct gender roles, media literacy empowers individuals to challenge harmful stereotypes and demand more diverse and inclusive representations. Educators, parents, and individuals themselves all play critical roles in promoting media literacy and fostering a society that values critical engagement over passive consumption. As the advertising landscape continues to evolve, media literacy will remain an essential tool in the quest for a more equitable portrayal of gender in the media.


In conclusion, the rhetoric of gender representation in modern advertising is a complex interplay of genre conventions, rhetorical strategies, and their impact on societal perceptions. Advertisements are powerful tools that shape our understanding of gender roles, often perpetuating traditional stereotypes. However, with the emergence of subversive advertising and the promotion of media literacy, there is hope for a more inclusive and diverse portrayal of gender in advertising. By critically analyzing and challenging these conventions, we can foster a more equitable society that recognizes the complexity and diversity of human identities.


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Butler, J. (2018). Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. Routledge.

Gill, R. (2019). Unconscious bias and the gendering of leadership. In The Oxford Handbook of Gender in Organizations (pp. 1-18). Oxford University Press.

Grauerholz, L. (2022). Children’s Gender and Sexuality in Commercial Culture. In Children and Media (pp. 109-129). Routledge.

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Sternadori, M. (2020). Gender portrayal in advertising: A content analysis of contemporary Spanish-language television commercials. Sex Roles, 82(7-8), 389-400.