Balancing Health Information Privacy and Public Health Reporting: Common Diseases and Disclosure Exceptions


In the realm of healthcare, the delicate balance between patient privacy and the need to share health information for effective medical care is a significant ethical and legal consideration. Certain diseases have gained prominence due to their prevalence in society, prompting discussions about how health information can be shared while safeguarding an individual’s right to privacy. This essay aims to explore the most common diseases that are reported and delve into the exceptions that permit the disclosure of private health information, emphasizing the ethical and legal dimensions that shape these dynamics.

Common Diseases and Reporting

Several diseases have gained notoriety due to their high prevalence in society, leading to extensive reporting and surveillance efforts. One such disease is diabetes, characterized by the body’s inability to regulate blood glucose levels effectively. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), diabetes affects over 463 million people globally, making it a critical public health concern (WHO, 2020). The significant prevalence of diabetes necessitates extensive data collection and reporting to monitor its impact, plan interventions, and allocate resources effectively (Li et al., 2020).

Another common disease is hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, which affects nearly one-third of the adult population worldwide (NCD Risk Factor Collaboration, 2017). The morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension emphasize the importance of robust reporting systems that enable healthcare providers to monitor trends and tailor interventions. The surveillance of diseases like diabetes and hypertension is essential for epidemiological studies, policy formulation, and resource allocation (Muntner et al., 2018).

Exceptions for Health Information Disclosure

While the privacy of health information is paramount, certain exceptions exist that allow for the disclosure of private health information without explicit patient consent. These exceptions are designed to strike a balance between individual privacy rights and public health concerns. One common exception is the reporting of notifiable diseases to public health authorities. Notifiable diseases are those that are legally required to be reported to public health agencies due to their potential to cause outbreaks or epidemics. For instance, in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) requires healthcare providers to report cases of diseases such as tuberculosis and certain foodborne illnesses (CDC, 2021).

Another exception pertains to situations where there is a serious threat to an individual’s health or safety, as well as to the health and safety of others. This exception is rooted in the principle of duty to warn or protect, whereby healthcare providers may disclose information to prevent harm. For instance, if a patient with a contagious disease refuses treatment and poses a risk to others, healthcare providers may disclose relevant information to protect the public (Beauchamp & Childress, 2019).

Ethical and Legal Considerations

Balancing the need for disease reporting and health information disclosure with an individual’s right to privacy presents ethical and legal challenges. Privacy is a fundamental human right that is protected by various international and national laws. For example, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in the European Union emphasizes the importance of obtaining informed consent before processing personal data, including health information (European Commission, 2016). However, the greater good and public health imperatives sometimes require overriding individual privacy rights.

The principle of beneficence, which dictates acting in the best interest of the patient, often guides health professionals in navigating these ethical dilemmas. The utilitarian approach argues that the benefits of disease reporting and health information disclosure to society outweigh the potential harms to individual privacy (Beauchamp & Childress, 2019). Moreover, legal frameworks, such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) in the United States, provide guidelines for permissible disclosures of protected health information while safeguarding patient confidentiality (HHS, 2013).


The prevalence of common diseases like diabetes and hypertension underscores the necessity for robust reporting systems to monitor and address their impact on public health. Despite the imperative to safeguard patient privacy, exceptions exist that allow for the disclosure of private health information in certain circumstances, such as notifiable diseases and threats to health and safety. These exceptions are underpinned by ethical considerations that balance individual rights with societal interests, and they are further reinforced by legal frameworks that delineate the boundaries of health information disclosure. Striking the right balance between health information disclosure and patient privacy remains an ongoing challenge as healthcare systems continue to grapple with the complexities of disease surveillance and public health protection.


Beauchamp, T. L., & Childress, J. F. (2019). Principles of Biomedical Ethics (8th ed.). Oxford University Press.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2021). Reportable Diseases/Conditions in Ohio.

Li, W., Wang, L., Su, S., Chen, M., Wang, H., & Zuo, C. (2020). Recent Advances in Diabetes Research in China. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 8(9), 736-738.

Muntner, P., Carey, R. M., Gidding, S., Jones, D. W., Taler, S. J., Wright, J. T., & Whelton, P. K. (2018). Potential US Population Impact of the 2017 ACC/AHA High Blood Pressure Guideline. Circulation, 137(2), 109-118.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2020). Diabetes.