What are the four causes of change according to Aristotle?

Please answer the following four Questions.
1. What are the four causes of change according to Aristotle? Which two did Galileo (and other scientists of the Scientific Revolution) later leave out, and why? (Note: See “Optional Reading, Part 1: Metaphysics” for any help on this.)
SIDE NOTE: here’s a video that introduces a philosopher of science named Thomas Kuhn, and an article about him. He revolutionized our thinking about how “scientific revolutions” happen. You don’t have to watch or read these, and you definitely don’t have to discuss them in your answer.
2. How does Aristotle define the soul? (Note: Check out “Optional Reading, Part 2: On the Soul” for any help.)
3. What’s the difference between “happiness” as we moderns typically use the word and eudaimonia, the word Aristotle used that’s often translated as “happiness” in English? (Note: Check out “Optional Reading, Part 3: Ethics” for any help.)
4. In the Politics, Aristotle disagreed with his teacher Plato in thinking democracy was the best political system. But he saw a flaw in democracy that James Madison (Father of our Constitution), saw: the poor could take away the property of the rich. Madison’s solution: the powerful and wealthy should be protected against the masses. Aristotle had a different solution. What was it? (HINT: See the PDF of Book VI, Chapters 4-5 of Aristotle’s Politics under “Optional Readings, Part 4: Politics.”)
ONLY IF YOU’RE CURIOUS: Here is a link to Madison’s argument that society must “protect the minority of the opulent against the majority.” It comes from debates that were recorded at the Constitutional Convention. The name of the document is Secret Proceedings and Debates of the Convention Assembled at Philadelphia, in the Year 1787. The quote comes from “Tuesday, June 26th, 1787. Only if you’re curious, I would recommend checking out Yates’ version: https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-10-02-0044
OPTIONAL BONUS QUESTION:
You definitely don’t have to answer this, but answering it can give you some free, bonus points.
5. In one sentence each, what’s the difference between Skepticism, Cynicism, Stoicism, and Epicureanism? In a fifth sentence, what similarity might these four schools share in common? (Note: check out “Optional Reading, Part 6: Hellenism” for any help on this–again only if you’re curious.)