Assess Between and Within Subjects Experimental Research Designs

For your
assignment this week, select two of the following scenarios and answer all
parts of the questions as prompted.
******************
Although
colleges and universities have utilized distance learning (i.e., online
classes) for many years, teaching kindergarten through 12th-grade students
using an online platform is much rarer. Unfortunately, the COVID-19
(Coronavirus) pandemic of 2020 forced K-12 schools throughout the world to
turn to distance learning to teach children under 18. But how effective is an
online curriculum for children who are only familiar with physical
classrooms? To answer this question, your local school district asks you to
conduct a series of studies focusing on the new distance learning curriculum
they developed to teach K-12 students. Fortunately, the school district does
have a control group option available to you should you need it. That is,
some classrooms can use in-person instruction as the school has adequate
safety measures in place to protect these students. The school administrator
who hired you has four goals (though only the first goal must be addressed in
all study designs):
First,
the school administrator must know if online students are adequately learning
material appropriate for their age group (as measured by an end-of-semester
exam that all students must pass).
Second,
the administrator would like to know if the curriculum they developed works
equally well across students with different computer experience (experienced
versus inexperienced).
Third,
the administrator would like to know if students are improving as they
progress through the semester.
Fourth,
the administrator would like to know if the curriculum helps male and female
students equally.
The
school administrator recognizes that the COVID-19 pandemic is temporary but
that other pandemics might occur in the future, or K-12 schools might
naturally evolve an online component. Thus, the administrator would like to
know how well distance learning students perform over the next four calendar
years.

Assignment
Instructions:
You have
come up with a series of studies to test the administrator’s goals.
Use the
information in the study designs presented below to determine whether the
design involves a posttest-only between-groups design, a pretest-posttest
between groups design, a matched pairs design, a block design, a within-group
design (pretest, posttest), or a longitudinal design.
Determine
if the study meets the first goal of the administrator.
Determine
whether the study meets at least one other goal, and if not,
describe how you would alter the study design to meet at least one other
administrator goal.

Scenario
A
You
design a study where you randomly assign students to one of two conditions.
In one condition, students take the curriculum fully online. In the second
condition, they take the curriculum fully in person. However, because you
think familiarity and experience with computers might impact how students
adapt to fully online classes, you first find students who are experienced
with computers as well as students who are not experienced with computers. To
make sure the two conditions are composed of students who share similar
traits and abilities, you pair up experienced computer users and send one to
Condition 1 and the other to Condition 2. You do the same for the next pair
(and the next). You also pair up students who are not experienced with
computers and similarly assign one to Condition 1 and the other to Condition
2. Here, the independent variable is the condition (online versus in-person
teaching), and the dependent variable(s) is the extent to which the child
learns the age-appropriate material (as measured by passing the final exam
and/or assignments).
This
study best describes which of the six research designs described in this
lesson? Explain your response, including how this study design meets the
first administrator goal.
Does
this design meet any of the other administrator goals?
If yes,
which one and why?
If no,
how could you redesign the study to meet at least one other administrator
goal?
Scenario
B
You
design a study where you randomly assign students to one of two conditions.
In one condition, students take the curriculum fully online. In the second
condition, they take the curriculum fully in person. All students take a
pretest at the start of the semester and a post-test at the end of the
semester. Here, there are two independent variables. One is the type of
course (online versus in person), and the second is timing (pretest at the
start of the semester versus post-test at the end of the semester). The
dependent variable(s) is the extent to which the child learns the
age-appropriate material (as measured by passing the final exam and/or
assignments).
This
study best describes which of the six research designs described in this
lesson? Explain your response, including how this study design meets the
first administrator goal.
Does
this design meet any of the other administrator goals?
If yes,
which one and why?
If no,
how could you redesign the study to meet at least one other administrator
goal?
Scenario
C
You
design a study where you randomly assign students to one of two conditions.
In one condition, children will have in-person instruction in a physical
classroom. In the second condition, the children will have online
instruction. Both conditions will use the same curriculum, though the online
version is remote. The independent variable will be the condition (in person
or online), and the dependent variable(s) will be the extent to which the
child learns the age-appropriate material (as measured by passing the final
exam and/or assignments).
This
study best describes which of the six research designs described in this
lesson? Explain your response, including how this study design meets the
first administrator goal.
Does
this design meet any of the other administrator goals?
If yes,
which one and why?
If no,
how could you redesign the study to meet at least one other administrator
goal?
Scenario
D
You
design a study where you randomly assign students to one of two conditions.
In one condition, children will have in-person instruction in a physical
classroom. In the second condition, the children will have online
instruction. However, you first match students on multiple key
characteristics that you think might impact their learning. In this case, you
focus on their computer experience and gender. That is, you pair students
with the same computer experience and then randomly assign one member of each
pair to the online condition and the other member to the in-person condition.
Similarly,
you pair inexperienced students, you pair males, and you pair females, and
once again assign one member of each pair to the online condition and the
other to the in-person condition. You do this for all students. Thus, male
experienced computer users, male inexperienced computer users, female
experienced computer users, and female inexperienced computer users are
present in both online and in-person classes. The dependent variable(s) is
the extent to which the child learns the age-appropriate material (as
measured by passing the final exam and/or assignments).
This
study best describes which of the six research designs described in this
lesson? Explain your response, including how this study design meets the
first administrator goal.
Does
this design meet any of the other administrator goals?
If yes,
which one and why?
If no,
how could you redesign the study to meet at least one other administrator
goal?
Scenario
E
Unfortunately,
you find that the school district cannot give you an adequate in-person
comparison group; therefore, all students will participate in the new online
curriculum. Since they still want your help to assess the program’s
effectiveness, you decide to do so by assessing student knowledge at the
start of the semester and comparing it to their knowledge at the end of the
semester. The dependent variable(s) is the extent to which the child learns
the age-appropriate material (as measured by passing the final exam and/or
assignments).
This
study best describes which of the six research designs described in this
lesson? Explain your response, including how this study design meets the
first administrator goal.
Does
this design meet any of the other administrator goals?
If yes,
which one and why?
If no,
how could you redesign the study to meet at least one other administrator
goal?
Scenario
F
You
design a study where you randomly assign students to one of two conditions.
In one condition, children will have in-person instruction in a physical
classroom. In the second condition, the children will have online
instruction. Fortunately, your study design allows you to follow and assess
both sets of students multiple times over four years. Even as the students
advance from one grade to the next, your study will determine if taking classes
online helps or hurts their ability to pass assignments and final exams (the
dependent variables in this study). The independent variables would be (a)
the varying amounts of times assessments are taken (quarterly, mid-semester,
end of the semester, the following semester, the next school year, etc.) and
(b) the two conditions, in-person and online instruction.
This
study best describes which of the six research designs described in this
lesson? Explain your response, including how this study design meets the
first administrator goal.
Does
this design meet any of the other administrator goals?
If yes,
which one and why?
If no,
how could you redesign the study to meet at least one other administrator
goal?
Length:
5-7 pages, not including title and reference pages
References:
Include a minimum of 3 scholarly resources.
The
completed assignment should address all of the assignment requirements,
exhibit evidence of concept knowledge, and demonstrate thoughtful
consideration of the content presented in the course. The writing should
integrate scholarly resources, reflect academic expectations and current APA
standards, and adhere to Northcentral University’s Academic Integrity Policy.
When
applicable, conduct a Turnitin pre-check and then upload your completed
assignment and click the Submit to Dropbox button.

Rubric
Name: Signature Assignment Rubric
Print
Rubric

Criteria

Does
Not Meet Expectations (0% – 72%)

Below
Expectations (73%-82%)

Meets
Expectations (83%-89%)

Exceeds
Most Expectations (90%-93%)

Exceeds
All Expectations (94%-100%)

Criterion
Score

The
writing is clear and compelling. 7%

1.3
points
Student
failed to demonstrate a well-developed focus, and there is little evidence of
integration of reading material or conceptual knowledge.

1.4
points
Student
demonstrated some focus, some logical organization of ideas, and some
integration of readings revealing conceptual knowledge and skills.

1.6
points
Student
mostly demonstrated a well-developed focus, a logical organization of ideas,
and exhibited an integration of readings revealing conceptual knowledge and
skills.

1.7
points
Student
demonstrated strength in almost all the following areas: a well-developed
focus, a logical organization of ideas, integration of readings revealing
conceptual knowledge and skills, and inclusion of some scholarly citations to
support ideas presented in the assignment.

1.8
points
Student
demonstrated strength in all the following areas: a well-developed focus, a
logical organization of ideas, integration of readings revealing conceptual
knowledge and skills, and inclusion of several scholarly citations to support
ideas presented in the assignment.

Score of
The writing is clear and compelling. 7%,
/ 1.8

The
writing reflects correct punctuation, grammar, word usage, and APA style. 7%

1.3
points
Student
needs to refine grammar, punctuation, and APA formatting because many errors
were evident.

1.4
points
Student
used some correct grammar, punctuation, and APA formatting.

1.6
points
Student
used mostly correct grammar, punctuation, and APA formatting, having less
than five errors.

1.7
points
Student
used correct grammar, punctuation, and APA formatting, with only three or
four errors.

1.8
points
Student
used correct grammar, punctuation, and APA formatting, with no more than one
or two errors.

Score of
The writing reflects correct punctuation, grammar, word usage, and APA style.
7%,
/ 1.8

The
response to the FIRST scenario is complete, with detailed explanations and
scholarly citations. 40%

7.2
points
Response
to the scenario is inaccurate or incomplete.

8.2
points
Response
to the scenario contains some inaccuracies or is incomplete.

8.9
points
Response
to the scenario is accurate, complete and supported with the required number
of scholarly references.

9.3
points
Response
to the scenario includes sound explanations, with clear details and accurate
ideas with thorough explanations, along with more than the required amount of
scholarly references.

10
points
Response
to the scenario is exceptionally crafted with detailed explanations,
compelling ideas and supported with scholarly references.

Score of
The response to the FIRST scenario is complete, with detailed explanations
and scholarly citations. 40%,
/ 10

The
response to the SECOND scenario is complete, with detailed explanations and
scholarly citations. 40%

7.2
points
Response
to the scenario is inaccurate or incomplete.

8.2
points
Response
to the scenario contains some inaccuracies or is incomplete.

8.9 points
Response
to the scenario is accurate, complete and supported with the required number
of scholarly references.

9.3
points
Response
to the scenario includes sound explanations, with clear details and accurate
ideas with thorough explanations, along with more than the required amount of
scholarly references.

10
points
Response
to the scenario is exceptionally crafted with detailed explanations,
compelling ideas and supported with scholarly references.

Score of
The response to the SECOND scenario is complete, with detailed explanations
and scholarly citations. 40%,
/ 10

Criteria

Level
3

Exceeds
All Expectations

Criterion
Score

The
student met the required length for the assignment. 6%

1.1
points
The
assignment is longer or shorter than required.

1.4
points
The
assignment meets the length requirement.

Score of
The student met the required length for the assignment. 6%,
/ 1.4