What do you believe was the secret to their success?

P‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‌‌lease answer ONE of the three following questions in approximately 750-1000 words: 1) By the nineteenth century the Europeans were able to dominate the great land empires of Asia and the Middle East. The Europeans most often projected this domination through naval power, as seen in the unequal treaties and commercialized port cities. Just how great was this loss of sovereignty and how did the Ottomans, Chinese and Indians react? 2) Historians almost universally recogni‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‌‌ze the Japanese as uniquely successful among non-European peoples in their rapid modernization and emergence as a modern sea-based empire by the Great War. What do you believe was the secret to their success? 3) The First World War is arguably the most pivotal moment in world history since 1492. How did this devastating conflict change the global balance of power, inspire nationalist and/or anti-colonialist movements, and cause major social change among the countries involved‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‌‌?