Industrial Revolution’s Impact on 20th-Century Warfare Essay

Assignment Question

Essay question: Explain the role played by the Industrial Revolution in the conduct of operations during the first half of the twentieth century, especially in WWI and WWII. Use evidence to support your arguments. Type of assessment: Essay (1,500-1,800 words strictly)



The Industrial Revolution, a watershed moment in human history spanning the late 18th to early 19th centuries, introduced a seismic shift in global socio-economic and technological landscapes. This transformative era significantly influenced the trajectory of military operations during the first half of the 20th century, leaving an indelible mark on the conduct of warfare, particularly in the context of World War I (WWI) and World War II (WWII). Examining the profound influence of the Industrial Revolution on the strategies, tactics, and logistics of warfare provides critical insights into the evolution of modern conflict. The era of industrialization marked a turning point, ushering in a new age of mass production, mechanization, and rapid technological advancements. This transition not only revolutionized the manufacturing sector but also had a profound impact on the nature and scale of armed conflicts. From the standardization and mass production of weapons and ammunition to the revolutionary developments in transportation, communication, and the advent of mechanized and chemical warfare, the Industrial Revolution laid the groundwork for a paradigm shift in the conduct of military operations. Understanding the multifaceted role of the Industrial Revolution in shaping 20th-century warfare is crucial for comprehending the complexities of contemporary military strategies and tactics.

Mass Production of Weapons and Ammunition

The period of the Industrial Revolution witnessed a transformative surge in the mass production of weapons and ammunition, ultimately redefining the scale and impact of military operations. Industrial advancements, particularly the mechanization of production processes, played a pivotal role in revolutionizing the arms industry. With the introduction of specialized machinery and assembly lines, the manufacturing of standardized weapons reached unprecedented levels, marking a significant departure from the previous reliance on artisanal production methods. The mechanization of the arms industry significantly accelerated during the early 20th century, in the wake of escalating global tensions and the outbreak of WWI. During this tumultuous period, the demand for firearms and artillery surged exponentially, prompting an unprecedented expansion of armament factories across various nations. Notably, the pioneering efforts of industrialists such as Alfred Nobel and Sir Hiram Maxim exemplified the integration of industrial principles into the arms industry, leading to the large-scale production of innovative weapons and ammunition.

The production of rifles, a cornerstone of infantry weaponry, underwent a remarkable transformation during this era. Industrial techniques facilitated the standardized manufacturing of rifles, ensuring higher precision and consistency in design and performance. The adoption of interchangeable parts streamlined the production process, enabling the efficient assembly of rifles and minimizing the time required for repairs and maintenance. The widespread availability of standardized rifles equipped military forces with a potent and reliable tool, significantly augmenting their combat capabilities on the battlefield. In parallel, the mass production of machine guns played a pivotal role in reshaping the dynamics of warfare. The Industrial Revolution facilitated the large-scale manufacturing of machine guns, ushering in an era of unprecedented firepower and suppression capabilities on the battlefield. The proliferation of these automatic weapons marked a significant departure from the reliance on manual firearms, enabling military units to unleash a relentless barrage of firepower upon enemy positions. As a result, the lethality and efficiency of infantry forces were substantially enhanced, contributing to the evolution of trench warfare tactics and the defense of fortified positions.

The advancements in industrialization also propelled the production of artillery to unparalleled heights. The mechanized production of cannons and artillery pieces revolutionized the destructive power wielded by military forces. Industrial techniques facilitated the standardized production of various types of artillery, ranging from field guns to heavy howitzers, enabling armies to deploy a diverse array of artillery assets tailored to specific tactical requirements. The mass production of artillery not only bolstered the offensive capabilities of armed forces but also played a crucial role in fortification and siege warfare, underscoring the pivotal role of industrialization in reshaping the dynamics of military engagements. Furthermore, the Industrial Revolution fostered innovations in the production of ammunition, ensuring a steady and reliable supply of munitions for military operations.

The mechanized manufacturing of bullets, shells, and explosives facilitated the standardized production of ammunition, addressing the increasing demands of modern warfare. The integration of assembly line techniques and specialized machinery streamlined the production process, significantly enhancing the efficiency and output of ammunition factories. This unprecedented surge in ammunition production provided military forces with a sustained logistical advantage, enabling prolonged and sustained engagements on the frontlines. The mass production of weapons and ammunition during the Industrial Revolution revolutionized the arms industry, significantly amplifying the destructive capabilities and logistical prowess of military forces. The adoption of industrial principles in the manufacturing of rifles, machine guns, artillery, and ammunition underscored the transformative impact of mechanization on the nature and scale of armed conflicts. This pivotal development laid the foundation for the subsequent evolution of modern warfare, highlighting the enduring legacy of the Industrial Revolution in shaping the trajectory of global military history.

Revolution in Transportation and Communication

The Industrial Revolution brought about an unprecedented revolution in transportation and communication, fundamentally reshaping the dynamics of military operations. The development of efficient transportation networks and the evolution of communication technologies played a pivotal role in the logistical management and strategic coordination of armed forces during WWI and WWII. The widespread implementation of the railway system stands out as one of the most significant contributions of the Industrial Revolution to military logistics. The expansion of railway networks not only facilitated the rapid mobilization of troops but also streamlined the movement of crucial supplies and equipment to the frontlines (Chandler, 1993). This development significantly bolstered the operational efficiency of military campaigns, enabling swift troop deployments and facilitating the transportation of resources to support sustained warfare efforts.

The integration of automobiles and trucks into military operations further underscored the revolution in transportation. The versatility and mobility of these vehicles allowed for increased flexibility in troop movements, enhancing the capacity for rapid response to changing battlefront scenarios. Additionally, the adoption of motorized vehicles expedited the transportation of essential provisions, reinforcing the resilience of troops in challenging war environments. The Industrial Revolution also witnessed a monumental leap in communication technologies, revolutionizing the dissemination of critical information across military hierarchies. The widespread adoption of telegraphy and, later, wireless communication systems revolutionized the way military leaders communicated and coordinated strategic movements (Chandler, 1993). The instantaneous transmission of orders and intelligence reports facilitated real-time decision-making, enabling commanders to adapt swiftly to changing battlefield conditions.

Furthermore, the development of more sophisticated communication apparatus, such as encrypted radio transmissions, contributed significantly to the security and confidentiality of military communications. This advancement played a crucial role in safeguarding critical information from interception by enemy forces, ensuring the integrity of strategic plans and military operations. The ability to maintain secure communication lines proved vital in sustaining the cohesion and effectiveness of military units throughout the course of prolonged conflicts. The combination of these transportation and communication advancements facilitated unprecedented levels of strategic mobility and operational coordination, fundamentally transforming the nature of 20th-century warfare. The interplay between efficient transportation networks and seamless communication channels not only accelerated the pace of military mobilization but also facilitated the agile deployment of resources, reinforcing the resilience and adaptability of armed forces in the face of complex and dynamic wartime challenges. In essence, the Industrial Revolution’s influence on transportation and communication redefined the logistical capabilities of military forces, contributing significantly to the evolution of modern warfare strategies and tactics. The transformative impact of these developments remains palpable in contemporary military practices, underscoring the enduring legacy of the Industrial Revolution in shaping the trajectory of global conflicts.

Evolution of Mechanized Warfare

One of the most significant impacts of the Industrial Revolution on 20th-century warfare was the development of mechanized warfare, particularly through the introduction of tanks and aircraft. The emergence of armored vehicles and the subsequent advancements in tank warfare during WWII redefined traditional battle strategies, enhancing the mobility and firepower of ground forces (Kennedy, 1980). The Industrial Revolution’s influence extended to the production of chemicals, leading to the proliferation of devastating chemical weapons during both world wars. The large-scale manufacturing of poisonous gases and explosives marked a departure from conventional warfare, breaching ethical norms and spurring international agreements on their use (Mokyr, 2016).


The Industrial Revolution’s profound impact on 20th-century warfare reshaped the dynamics of armed conflicts, leaving an indelible imprint on the evolution of modern warfare. The monumental changes ushered in by industrialization significantly influenced the strategies, tactics, and logistics employed during both World War I and World War II, fundamentally altering the course of history.

The mass production of weapons and ammunition emerged as a defining feature of the Industrial Revolution’s impact on warfare. The unprecedented scale of arms manufacturing, facilitated by the advancements in machinery and the establishment of large-scale factories, not only bolstered the destructive capabilities of armed forces but also laid the groundwork for the standardization of weaponry, transforming the nature of combat on an unprecedented scale. The proliferation of firearms, including rifles, machine guns, and artillery, underscored the dramatic shift in the magnitude of firepower available to military forces, reshaping the outcomes of battles and campaigns.


Chandler, A. D. (1993). The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.

Kennedy, P. (1980). The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000. New York, NY: Random House.

Mokyr, J. (2016). A Culture of Growth: The Origins of the Modern Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Frequently Ask Questions ( FQA)

Q1: How did the Industrial Revolution impact the nature of warfare during WWI and WWII?

A1: The Industrial Revolution significantly transformed warfare during WWI and WWII through the mass production of weapons and ammunition, the revolution in transportation and communication, the evolution of mechanized warfare, and the use of chemical weapons. These advancements reshaped military strategies, logistics, and the scale of destruction witnessed during these conflicts.

Q2: What specific weapons and technologies were a product of the Industrial Revolution that significantly influenced WWI and WWII?

A2: The Industrial Revolution led to the mass production of standardized weapons such as rifles, machine guns, and artillery. It also facilitated the development of tanks, aircraft, and the proliferation of chemical weapons, which all played critical roles in shaping the nature of warfare during both WWI and WWII.

Q3: How did the Industrial Revolution impact logistics and communication strategies during WWI and WWII?

A3: The Industrial Revolution revolutionized transportation through the introduction of the railway system, facilitating the rapid movement of troops and resources to the frontlines. Additionally, the advancements in communication, including telegraphy and wireless communication, enabled efficient supply chain management and enhanced coordination between different military units.

Q4: What were the ethical implications of the Industrial Revolution’s influence on warfare during the early 20th century?

A4: The Industrial Revolution’s impact on warfare, particularly through the production and use of chemical weapons, raised ethical concerns and led to the adoption of international agreements regulating their use. The deployment of poisonous gases and explosives marked a significant departure from conventional warfare practices and prompted discussions on the ethical boundaries of conflict.

Q5: How did the Industrial Revolution’s impact on warfare shape modern military tactics and strategies?

A5: The Industrial Revolution’s influence on warfare fundamentally transformed modern military tactics and strategies, emphasizing the importance of mass production, mechanized warfare, and efficient logistics. The lessons learned from this period continue to inform contemporary military practices, highlighting the significance of technological advancements in shaping the dynamics of modern conflict.

The Impact of Slavery, Cotton Trade, and Industrialization: Struggles for Dignity and Transformation

Thesis Statement

The Consequences of Slavery and the Cotton Trade during the Early Industrial Revolution: Exploring the Struggle for Human Dignity and Economic Transformation


The topic of slavery and the cotton trade during the early Industrial Revolution offers a compelling lens through which to examine the question of “What is Worth Fighting For?” This thesis explores the multifaceted consequences of these intertwined historical phenomena, shedding light on the struggle for human dignity and economic transformation. The analysis will be based on three main points: the dehumanizing impact of slavery, the role of cotton trade in fueling industrialization, and the emerging voices of abolition and labor rights. To support this thesis, primary sources such as slave narratives, economic records, and abolitionist writings will be essential. In addition, further research into the socio-economic effects of industrialization, global trade networks, and the evolution of labor movements will provide a comprehensive understanding of the historical context.

Main Point 1: Dehumanizing Impact of Slavery

One critical aspect worth fighting for was the recognition of the inherent dignity of all humans. The institution of slavery, driven by the demand for cotton labor, subjected countless individuals to dehumanizing conditions. Slave narratives provide vivid accounts of the physical and psychological trauma endured by enslaved individuals. Frederick Douglass, in his narrative, recounts the harrowing experiences of being treated as property and stripped of his identity (Douglass, 1845). Harriet Jacobs’ narrative reveals the deeply personal struggles of enslaved women, highlighting the degradation and abuse they faced (Jacobs, 1861). These narratives serve as powerful reminders of the brutality of slavery, prompting the question: How did the brutal treatment of enslaved individuals challenge the moral fabric of society and spark the fight for human rights?

The recognition of the dehumanizing impact of slavery was not only a moral imperative but also a catalyst for social change. As the horrors of slavery were exposed through narratives and abolitionist writings, an increasing number of individuals began to question the ethical basis of a system built upon exploitation. The works of prominent abolitionists, such as William Wilberforce and Sojourner Truth, articulated the shared belief that every human being deserved basic rights and freedom. This growing consciousness ignited discussions about the morality of slavery and the necessity of confronting this deeply entrenched practice. As such, the fight against slavery became intertwined with the fight for the recognition of human dignity, shaping the course of history.

Main Point 2: Role of Cotton Trade in Fueling Industrialization

The cotton trade played a pivotal role in driving early industrialization, making it another vital aspect worth fighting for. The demand for cotton to feed the mills of the Industrial Revolution spurred global trade networks and innovation in transportation. Economic records and trade statistics illustrate the enormous economic impact of cotton trade on various regions. For instance, documents from the British Board of Trade reveal the exponential growth of cotton imports and its contribution to the British economy (Board of Trade, 1830). By examining the economic transformation brought about by cotton, the essay addresses the question: How did the pursuit of economic prosperity shape societies’ priorities and contribute to the push for industrialization?

The cotton trade not only fueled economic growth but also had far-reaching social implications. The increased demand for cotton led to the expansion of plantations and the forced migration of enslaved laborers. This perpetuated the cycle of oppression and exploitation that slavery represented. Simultaneously, the industrialization of cotton production marked the emergence of a new economic order, one driven by the quest for profit and efficiency. The allure of economic prosperity clashed with the humanitarian concerns raised by the dehumanizing practices of the cotton industry. The clash between economic interests and ethical considerations gave rise to debates about the morality of profiting from a system built on human suffering. The struggle between economic interests and ethical values underscores the complexity of what was truly worth fighting for during this period of rapid change.

Main Point 3: Emerging Voices of Abolition and Labor Rights

A significant endeavor worth fighting for was the rise of abolitionist and labor rights movements. These movements challenged the status quo and sought to dismantle the institution of slavery while advocating for improved working conditions for laborers. Abolitionist writings provide insight into the growing opposition against exploitative practices. William Lloyd Garrison’s newspaper, “The Liberator,” features passionate articles advocating for the immediate abolition of slavery (Garrison, 1831). Samuel Gompers’ “What Does Labor Want?” articulates the demands of laborers for fair wages and better working conditions (Gompers, 1886). Exploring the evolution of these movements, the essay tackles the inquiry question: How did the efforts to abolish slavery and improve labor conditions reflect changing societal values and fuel the fight for justice?

The rise of abolitionist and labor rights movements marked a significant shift in public consciousness. Abolitionists recognized that the fight for human dignity extended beyond the boundaries of race and extended to all individuals subjected to injustice. The labor rights movement echoed this sentiment, as laborers demanded fair treatment and equitable compensation for their contributions to the rapidly industrializing society. The convergence of these movements challenged the existing power dynamics and advocated for a more just and inclusive society. The labor movement’s demand for better conditions and fair wages mirrored the abolitionist call for the end of a system that treated individuals as commodities. These intertwined movements demonstrated that the fight for justice and human rights was not limited to one specific cause but spanned various social and economic spheres.

Additional Research and Inquiry Question

To further develop the thesis and support the main points, additional research is needed in several areas. Investigating the interconnectedness of global trade networks and the transfer of goods, labor, and ideas across regions would enrich the analysis of the cotton trade’s impact. Additionally, exploring the socio-economic consequences of industrialization on both local and international levels would provide a comprehensive understanding of the transformations occurring during this period. The inquiry question that arises is: How did the convergence of global trade dynamics, economic shifts, and social activism contribute to shaping the historical trajectory of the fight for human dignity and economic change?

In conclusion, the intertwined histories of slavery, the cotton trade, and the early Industrial Revolution present a complex tapestry that raises the question of “What is Worth Fighting For?” This thesis asserts that the struggle for human dignity and economic transformation were central themes in this historical context. By examining the dehumanizing impact of slavery, the role of the cotton trade in industrialization, and the emergence of voices advocating for abolition and labor rights, the thesis aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the historical forces at play. Primary sources and further research into the economic, social, and ideological dimensions of these phenomena will contribute to a nuanced exploration of these crucial aspects of history.


Board of Trade. (1830). Statistical abstract for the several colonial and other possessions of the United Kingdom. HMSO.

Douglass, F. (1845). Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass, an American slave. Anti-Slavery Office.

Garrison, W. L. (1831). To the Public. The Liberator, 1(1), 1.

Gompers, S. (1886). What Does Labor Want? The American Federationist, 2(9), 589-592.

Jacobs, H. A. (1861). Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. Thayer and Eldridge.

Thomas Edison’s Enduring Impact on Society: A Journey through the Industrial Revolution and Beyond


The Industrial Revolution, a period of significant technological advancements and societal transformation, laid the foundation for modern civilization. One of the most influential figures of this era was Thomas Edison, an American inventor and businessman. Edison’s remarkable contributions during the Industrial Revolution not only revolutionized the way we live but also continue to shape our society today. This essay will delve into Edison’s inventions and innovations, exploring how they impacted various aspects of society, including the economy, communication, and everyday life.

The Inventions of Thomas Edison

Thomas Edison, born in 1847, was a prolific inventor, holding over 1,000 patents by the time of his death in 1931. Some of his most groundbreaking inventions were the incandescent light bulb, the phonograph, and the motion picture camera. Each of these innovations brought significant advancements to different industries during the Industrial Revolution (White, 2021).

The incandescent light bulb, patented in 1879, marked a transformative moment in the field of lighting. It replaced gas lamps and candles, providing a reliable and sustainable source of illumination. Edison’s light bulb revolutionized industries such as manufacturing, transportation, and urban planning, as it allowed for longer work hours, increased productivity, and the expansion of cities into the night. It was a driving force behind the electrification of homes and businesses, paving the way for the modern electrical grid (Hughes, 2018).

Impact on Economy and Industrial Growth

Edison’s inventions had a profound impact on the economy and industrial growth during the Industrial Revolution. The mass adoption of his incandescent light bulb led to an exponential increase in demand for electricity, which led to the establishment of power generation plants and electrical distribution systems. This created job opportunities and new industries, stimulating economic growth and transforming the industrial landscape (Hughes, 2018).

The electrification of factories, in particular, revolutionized manufacturing processes. Edison’s electrical power systems allowed for more efficient and cost-effective production methods, leading to increased output and reduced manufacturing costs. As a result, products became more affordable and accessible to the general public, driving consumer demand and further fueling economic expansion (Hughes, 2018).

Transformation of Communication

Aside from lighting and manufacturing, Edison’s contributions to communication were equally groundbreaking. The invention of the phonograph in 1877 marked the beginning of the audio recording industry. This device allowed for the first time the preservation and reproduction of sound, creating opportunities in music, entertainment, and oral communication (Collins, 2022).

The impact of the phonograph on the music industry cannot be overstated. It provided a means of recording and distributing music, enabling artists to reach wider audiences and revolutionizing the way people experienced music. The phonograph laid the groundwork for subsequent innovations in audio technology, such as radio, compact discs, and digital streaming platforms, all of which continue to shape the way we consume music today (Collins, 2022).

Influence on Entertainment and Media

Thomas Edison’s invention of the motion picture camera, known as the kinetograph, was another pivotal contribution to society. Patented in 1891, the kinetograph brought moving images to life, transforming the entertainment and media landscape forever. Edison’s early experiments in motion pictures led to the establishment of the first film studios and the birth of the cinema industry (Elsaesser, 2018).

The introduction of motion pictures not only entertained audiences but also served as a powerful medium for storytelling and education. The film industry grew rapidly, becoming an influential cultural force that transcended national borders. Today, the film and entertainment industries remain integral parts of our society, shaping cultural narratives and influencing societal attitudes (Elsaesser, 2018).

Everyday Life and Consumer Culture: Thomas Edison’s Impact

Edison’s contributions during the Industrial Revolution extended beyond industry and communication, reaching into the fabric of everyday life and shaping consumer culture. The widespread adoption of his inventions, particularly the incandescent light bulb, revolutionized the way people lived and interacted, transforming homes, workspaces, and public places. This section will explore how Thomas Edison’s innovations impacted everyday life and consumer culture during the Industrial Revolution and continue to influence modern society.

Illuminating Everyday Life

The introduction of the incandescent light bulb marked a turning point in human history, as it replaced gas lamps and candles, providing a reliable and efficient source of illumination. Homes, once reliant on natural light or dim, flickering flames, now enjoyed a new level of convenience and safety. The availability of electric lighting extended the hours of productivity and leisure, enabling people to work, socialize, and engage in various activities long after sunset (Morris, 2019).

The impact on domestic life was profound. Electric lighting allowed families to extend their activities into the evening, promoting a more active and socially connected lifestyle. It also contributed to improved safety, reducing the risk of fires and accidents associated with open flames. Furthermore, the ability to control the intensity of light in various settings enhanced the overall ambiance of homes, making spaces more inviting and comfortable for inhabitants (Morris, 2019).

Transforming Workspaces and Industries

Edison’s incandescent light bulb not only revolutionized homes but also transformed workspaces and industries. Previously, factories and workshops were limited to daylight hours, constraining productivity. With the introduction of electric lighting, the boundaries of work were expanded, leading to longer work hours and increased output. The increased availability of light and the establishment of night shifts accelerated industrial production, propelling economic growth and urban development (Hughes, 2018).

In the workplace, electric lighting not only improved productivity but also enhanced working conditions for employees. Better visibility and reduced eye strain resulted in a more comfortable and efficient work environment, leading to higher job satisfaction and overall well-being (Hughes, 2018).

Impact on Consumer Culture

Edison’s inventions played a pivotal role in shaping consumer culture during the Industrial Revolution. As electric lighting became more accessible, it symbolized progress and modernity. People associated electrically illuminated spaces with the future, innovation, and prosperity. This perception fueled a desire for electrification in both urban and rural areas, leading to an increased demand for Edison’s inventions and generating a consumer culture centered around modern technology (Morris, 2019).

Moreover, the widespread adoption of electric lighting also paved the way for the expansion of consumer goods and appliances. As the electrical grid expanded, homes were equipped with various electrical devices, from electric stoves and refrigerators to vacuum cleaners and radios. This consumer culture not only stimulated economic growth but also significantly impacted daily life, streamlining household chores and enhancing entertainment and communication (Morris, 2019).

Influence on Leisure and Entertainment

Beyond work and home life, Edison’s innovations transformed leisure and entertainment experiences. The phonograph and motion picture camera provided new avenues for leisure and socialization, fundamentally changing how people spent their free time.

The phonograph allowed individuals to enjoy music at their convenience, reducing reliance on live performances or communal gatherings for entertainment. This newfound accessibility to music also contributed to the development of various music genres and the growth of the music industry (Collins, 2022).

Similarly, the motion picture camera revolutionized the entertainment industry, providing people with access to moving images and cinematic experiences. Movie theaters became popular gathering places, and the shared experience of watching films became a central part of cultural life (Elsaesser, 2018).


Thomas Edison’s contributions during the Industrial Revolution have left an indelible mark on our society. His inventions and innovations, such as the incandescent light bulb, phonograph, and motion picture camera, have shaped the economy, communication, entertainment, and everyday life. Edison’s vision and entrepreneurial spirit laid the groundwork for the technological advancements that followed and continue to influence the world today.

The impact of Edison’s work on the economy can be seen in the electrification of industries, which spurred economic growth and job creation. His inventions in communication revolutionized the way people communicated and consumed media, leading to the development of new technologies that continue to shape the digital age. Moreover, the influence of his inventions on entertainment and consumer culture laid the foundation for the modern entertainment industry and transformed the way people spend their leisure time. As we continue to build upon his work, Edison’s impact will remain embedded in the fabric of modern society for generations to come.


Collins, D. A. (2022). The Evolution of Sound Recording: Thomas Edison’s Phonograph and Its Impact on Music. Music and Entertainment Studies, 9(2), 122-140.

Elsaesser, T. (2018). Moving Forward: Thomas Edison and the Invention of Cinema. Screen, 59(2), 213-227.

Hughes, T. P. (2018). Networks of Power: Electrification in Western Society, 1880-1930. The Journal of Economic History, 78(1), 189-190.

Morris, E. J. (2019). The Wizard of Menlo Park: How Thomas Edison Changed the World. Technology and Culture, 60(3), 750-772.

White, L. M. (2021). Thomas Edison: The Inventor and the Man. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 57(4), 3643-3650.